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Publication . Article . 2021

Basic Characteristics of Medically Important Alphaviruses (Togaviridae)

Şahiner, Fatih;
Open Access
Published: 21 Sep 2021 Journal: Life and Medical Sciences, volume 1, pages 1-13 (issn: 2791-9145, Copyright policy )
Publisher: Life and Medical Sciences
Abstract
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��zet Uluslararas�� Vir��s S��n��fland��rma Komitesi (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses; ICTV) taraf��ndan yay��mlanan raporlara g��re t��r d��zeyinde tan��mlanan vir��slerin say��s�� son birka�� y��lda 5.561���den (ICTV 2018b) 9.110���a (ICTV 2020) ula��m����t��r. Yeni geli��tirilen molek��ler biyoloji teknikleri ve yayg��nla��an saha ��al����malar�� yan��nda, vir��slerin sadece enfeksiy��z patojenler olarak g��r��ld������ ve tan��mland������ geleneksel bak������n aksine vir��slerin a���� ��al����malar�� veya genetik temelli tedaviler i��in biyolojik ara��lar olarak da incelendi��i g��n��m��z��n yeni anlay������ tan��mlanan t��r say��s��ndaki h��zl�� art������n ��nemli bir nedeni olmu��tur. Son y��llarda viral enfeksiyonlar��n epidemiyolojisindeki h��zl�� de��i��imler ve pandemik vir��slerin k��resel d��zeydeki y��k��c�� etkileri de bilim d��nyas��n��n salg��n potansiyeli olan vir��sler ba��ta olmak ��zere viroloji alan��na kar���� ilgisinin artmas��na yol a��m����t��r. T��m d��nyaya yay��lm���� t��rleri ile insanlarda ve hayvanlarda salg��nlara neden olan ve baz�� t��rleri y��ksek mortaliteli enfeksiyonlarla ili��kili olan alfaviruslar ba��l��ca sivrisinekler arac��l������ ile bula��t��r��lmaktad��r. ��nsanlarda ba��l��ca artritojenik ve ensefalitik enfeksiyonlarla ili��kili olan alfaviruslar��n baz�� t��rleri ise insanlar i��in enfeksiy��z veya patojen de��ildir. Alfavirus cinsinin ��yeleri aras��nda suda ya��ayan b��cek parazitler arac��l������ ile bal��klar ve foklar gibi deniz canl��lar��n�� enfekte eden t��rler oldu��u gibi, sadece sivrisinekleri enfekte edebildikleri i��in deneysel ��al����malarda g��venli ara��lar olarak ��ne ����kan t��rler de bulunmaktad��r. Dahas�� rekombinan alfaviruslar ve alfaviral replikazlar replikatif mRNA���lar��n tasarlanmas��nda ve mRNA temelli a����lar��n geli��tirilmesinde biyolojik ara��lar olarak kullan��lmaktad��r. Ensefalit etkeni alfaviruslar��n yayg��n g��r��len t��rleri i��in ba��l��ca atlarda kullan��lmak ��zere geli��tirilen zay��flat��lm���� ve inaktive a����lar mevcut iken, farkl�� alfavirus t��rleri i��in insanlarda kullan��labilecek a���� ve antiviraller i��in geli��tirme ��al����malar�� halen devam etmektedir. Alfaviruslar��, tarih��elerinden ba��layarak biyolojik ve genomik ��zellikleri, konak da����l��mlar�� ve neden olduklar�� hastal��klar y��n��nden g��ncel literat��r verilerine dayal�� olarak inceleyen bu makale bu vir��slerin temel virolojik karakteristiklerini ��zetlemektedir. Abstract According to the reports published by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the number of viruses defined at the species level has increased from 5,561 (ICTV 2018b) to 9,110 (ICTV 2020) in the last few years. In addition to newly developed molecular biology techniques and widespread field studies, today's new understanding in which viruses are also examined as biological tools for vaccine studies or genetic-based treatments, contrary to the traditional view that viruses are seen and defined only as infectious pathogens, has been an important reason for the rapid increase in the number of defined species. In recent years, the rapid changes in the epidemiology of viral infections and the devastating effects of pandemic viruses at the global level have led to an increase in the scientific world's interest in the field of virology, especially viruses with epidemic potential. Alphaviruses, which have spread all over the world, cause epidemics in humans and animals, and some species are associated with high-mortality infections, are mainly transmitted by mosquitoes. Alphaviruses are primarily associated with arthritogenic and encephalitic infections in humans, but some species are not infectious or pathogenic to humans. Among the members of the genus Alphavirus, there are species that infect sea creatures such as fish and seals through aquatic insect parasites, as well as species that stand out as safe tools in experimental studies because they can only infect mosquitoes. Moreover, recombinant alphaviruses and alphaviral replicases are used as biological tools in the design of replicative mRNAs and in the development of mRNA-based vaccines. While there are available attenuated and inactivated vaccines developed mainly for use in horses for common encephalitic alphavirus species, development studies are still ongoing for vaccines and antivirals that can be used in humans for different alphavirus types. This article, which examines alphaviruses starting from their history, based on current literature data in terms of biological and genomic features, host distribution and diseases they cause, summarizes the basic virological characteristics of these viruses.
T��bbi ��nemi Olan Alfaviruslar��n (Togaviridae) Temel Karakteristikleri. [ High resolution figures, metrics, and more: http://lifemedsci.com/a/2022/1/oz/1.htm ]
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Biology Virology Togaviridae biology.organism_classification

Subjects

Alfavirus, S��n��fland��rma, RNA vir��sleri, Arboviruslar, ��nsan enfeksiyonlar��., Alphavirus, Classification, RNA Viruses, Arboviruses, Human infections., Alfavirus, Sınıflandırma, RNA virüsleri, Arboviruslar, İnsan enfeksiyonları.

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