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  • 4. Education

  • Authors: Briole, Alain;

    L’évaluation de l’action 7 IDEFI, ”Création de sections technologiques” intègre dans son dispositif la prise en compte des enjeux sociaux de l’innovation. Pour dépasser les logiques fonctionnaliste et instrumentale généralement retenues, l’évaluation développe une démarche centrée sur les compétences sociales et le développement personnel des étudiants. Cette communication expose la méthodologie générale de cette démarche, son opérationnalisation et le cadre théorique qui la soutient. The evaluation of action 7 IDEFI , ”Création de sections technologiques” tries to catch the social challenge underlying this innovation. Beyond the functionalist approach, the evaluation focuses on social competences and students' self-development. This paper shows the methodological and conceptual frame of the study.

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  • Authors: Fontan, Jean-Marc; Brodeur, Monique;

    Dans une perspective d’apprendre, de transmettre et d’innover, les universités ont des défis cruciaux à relever. Depuis la fin des années 1970, l’Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) a adopté une mission sociale qui consiste à mettre au service de la communauté montréalaise et de la société québécoise son expertise en matière de formation, de recherche et de création. Dans un premier temps, nous présentons le cadre historique qui situe le développement de la mission sociale des universités modernes. Ceci nous conduit, dans un deuxième temps, à présenter l’ancrage institutionnel de la recherche action du sein de notre université. Ce travail se traduit par la présentation de la politique 41 et du Service aux collectivités de l’UQAM. Nous enchainons par un regard analytique sur la mobilisation des connaissances en milieu universitaire et sur les spécificités du modèle mis en place à l’UQAM. From the perspective of learning, transmitting and being innovating, universities encounter crucial challenges. Since the end of 1970, the University of Quebec in Montreal (UQAM) has adopted a social mission to provide to Montréal’s community and Quebec’s society its expertise in training, research and creation. In this paper, first, we present the historical context which places the development of the social mission of modern universities. This leads us, in a second stage, to introduce the institutional anchoring of the action research work done in our university. This work is reflected in the presentation of the institutional policy 41 that lead to the creation of the Services aux collectivités. We pursue the presentation with an analytical look at the ways Canadians universities mobilize knowledge and at the specifics of the model established at UQAM.

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  • Authors: Lavaur, Jean-Marc;

    L’usage des diaporamas, comme supports de cours et accompagnement d’un discours oral, s’est largement banalisé dans l’enseignement supérieur mais peu d’études ont été consacrées quant à leur réelle efficacité notamment lorsqu’on prend en compte à la fois le niveau d’expertise des apprenants dans le domaine étudié mais également le niveau atteint dans la langue utilisée dans le document projeté et commenté oralement. Dans la plupart des modèles multimédia, on suppose que le public domine en principe la langue de la présentation audiovisuelle, ce qui n’est pas toujours le cas dans notre environnement universitaire multilingue où de nombreux étudiants doivent suivre des cours dans une autre langue que leur langue native. Les travaux que nous présenterons ici se basent sur la théorie de l’apprentissage multimédia (Mayer, 2014) et sur les recherches qui mettent en avant le rôle des langues dans la compréhension des différents médias. Nous reconsidèrerons les principes évoqués par Mayer (2014) lorsque le public cible ne maîtrise pas complètement la langue de communication ou d’enseignement et doit donc disposer d’aide spécifique pour comprendre et accéder facilement aux informations essentielles. Les principes multimédia qui sont censés favoriser l’apprentissage et les effets attendus liés au format de présentation (texte, diaporama et vidéo) sont non seulement dépendants du niveau d’expertise du public visé, de ses compétences en langue mais également de facteurs plus généraux d’ordre cognitif ou affectif (motivation, attention, perception, concentration, stress, anxiété, manque de confiance). Pris dans leur ensemble, ces éléments peuvent conditionner la transmission des informations (contenu) et également améliorer le niveau de maîtrise dans la langue enseignée ou au contraire l’altérer en provoquant un phénomène de surcharge (redondance inutile, informations trop nombreuses ou mal disposées, rythme de défilement trop élevé…). Nous évoquerons quelques propositions qui permettent de moduler et d’optimiser les présentations audiovisuelles dans la perspective de réduire la charge cognitive liée aux enseignements et augmenter leur attractivité par l’utilisation des supports multimédia sur la base d’une expérience récente réalisée dans notre laboratoire (Mourey et Lavaur, 2015) où les diaporamas sont comparés avec d’autres supports d’information (texte, film) dans une situation de lecture/ compréhension en langue seconde. The use of slide presentations to support classes and to follow oral discourse (comments) is now very expanded in teaching at a university degree. However, only a few studies have been conducted in order to estimate the relative efficacy of slides when taking into account the expertise level of the learners in specific purposes as well as their language level when processing the audiovisual slide presentation and oral comments at the same time. In most multimedia models, the audience is supposed to master the language of the audiovisual slide presentation, but it is not always the case in our multilingual university community where numerous students need to follow classes in a second or non dominant language. The work presented here is based on the multimedia learning theory (Mayer, 2014) and on some researches that point out the role of languages in the comprehension of different audiovisual media. We will reconsider the principles mentioned by Mayer (2014) when the target audience does not master the language of communication (exchange) or teaching, and need specific help to understand and access the most important points of the presentation easily. The multimedia principles which are supposed to enhance learning and their expected effects linked to the presentation format (text, slides or video) are not only dependent on the expertise level of the audience, theirs skills in the target language. They also concern more general cognitive and affective factors (motivation, attention, perception, concentration, stress, anxiety, lack of confidence). Taken as a whole, these different elements can modify the transfer of information contents, improve the level in the taught language or, on the contrary, alter information processing by increasing the cognitive load (unnecessary redundancy, too numerous information or in an inadequate position, rate of scrolling from slide to slide which is too fast for the learners, etc.). We will mention here some proposals which allow for the modulation and optimization of audiovisual presentations in order to reduce the cognitive load linked to these kinds of teaching and to enhance their attractivity, by using audiovisual supports based on a recent experimental study run in our laboratory (Mourey and Lavaur, 2015) where slide presentations where compared with other supports (text and movie) in a second language reading/comprehension situation.

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    Authors: Ilya Selyuzhenkov; Igor Lakomov; Paul Christoph Bätzing; Elena Bruna; +388 Authors

    The azimuthal anisotropy coefficient v_{2} of prompt D^{0}, D^{+}, D^{*+}, and D_{s}^{+} mesons was measured in midcentral (30%-50% centrality class) Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV, with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The D mesons were reconstructed via their hadronic decays at midrapidity, |y|0.8, in the transverse momentum interval 1p_{T}24 GeV/c. The measured D-meson v_{2} has similar values as that of charged pions. The D_{s}^{+} v_{2}, measured for the first time, is found to be compatible with that of nonstrange D mesons. The measurements are compared with theoretical calculations of charm-quark transport in a hydrodynamically expanding medium and have the potential to constrain medium parameters.

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    USN Open Archive
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: USN Open Archive
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    HVL Open
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: HVL Open
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    Physical Review Letters
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: VIRTA
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    MediaTUM
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: MediaTUM
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    Physical Review Letters
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Physical Review Letters
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: NARCIS; Crossref
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  • Authors: Andrew Loxley; John Walsh;

    The ‘National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030' in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes and theoretical underpinnings of the report, locating it within a European and international context shaped by a dominant ‘knowledge based economy’ paradigm. This study draws upon broad narratives of public service reform to offer an initial theoretical insight into contemporary higher education policies in Ireland. The report reflects long-term trends in Irish higher education policy, which promote a reorientation of higher education to serve economic objectives. We argue that the Hunt Report is much more a synthesis of existing policies and previous expert group reports than a manifesto for radical transformation of Irish higher education.

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  • Authors: Karen Robson; Reana Maier; Rhonda C. George;

    Racial equity in Canadian education remains elusive. Despite Canada’s status as a multicultural nation, many minority students continue to be marginalised. In this article, we compare equity-relate...

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    Authors: Jennifer Wareham; Ken C. Winters; James Schmeidler; Richard Dembo; +2 Authors

    Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths' substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths' attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths' attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed.

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    Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Aisling N Daly; Elizabeth J O’Sullivan; Janette Walton; Breige A McNulty; +1 Authors

    Abstract Objectives: To describe the eating behaviour styles of Irish teens and to explore the relationships between demographic factors, BMI and dietary intake and these eating behaviour styles. Design: Cross-sectional data from the Irish National Teens’ Food Survey (2005–2006). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed three eating behaviour styles in teens: restrained, emotional and external eating. Data were stratified by sex and age groups. Setting: The Republic of Ireland. Participants: Nationally representative sample of teens aged 13–17 years (n 441). Results: The highest scoring eating behaviour style was external eating (2·83 external v. 1·79 restraint and 1·84 emotional). Girls scored higher than boys on all three scales (Restraint: 2·04 v. 1·56, P < 0·001, Emotional: 2·15 v. 1·55, P < 0·001 and External: 2·91 v. 2·76, P = 0·03), and older teens scored higher than younger teens on the Emotional (1·97 v. 1·67, P < 0·001) and External scales (2·91 v. 2·72, P = 0·01). Teens classified as overweight/obese scored higher than those classified as normal weight on the Restraint scale (2·15 v. 1·71, P < 0·001) and lower on the External scale (2·67 v. 2·87, P < 0·03). Daily energy intake was negatively correlated with the Restraint (r −0·343, P < 0·001) and Emotional scales (r −0·137, P = 0·004) and positively correlated with the External scale (r 0·110, P = 0·02). Conclusions: External eating is the predominant eating behaviour style among Irish teens, but sex, age, BMI and dietary differences exist for each eating behaviour style. Including measures of eating behaviour styles into future dietary research could help understand both how and why as well as what people eat.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Public Health Nutrition
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Public Health Nutrition
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Le Marec, Yannick; Doussot, Sylvain; Vezier, Anne;

    L’article rend compte de travaux menés depuis quelques années par l’équipe de didactique de l’histoire du CREN (Université de Nantes). Il propose de nouvelles orientations pour la production de savoirs en histoire, fondées sur le croisement du cadre théorique de la problématisation avec la théorie socio-historique du langage. Une réflexion est entamée sur l’adaptation de ces cadres théoriques avec l’épistémologie et la didactique de l’histoire et une étude de cas est menée dans une classe de l’école élémentaire française (CM1, élèves de 9 ans). Il en résulte quelques propositions de travail pour la construction d’un « espace des contraintes » et l’analyse des « pratiques langagières » en histoire. This article reports on work done for some years by the history education team of the CREN (University of Nantes). It offers new guidelines for the production of knowledge in history, based on the combination of the theoretical framework of the problematisation with the socio-historical theory of language. A study is begun on the adaptation of these theoretical frameworks with epistemology and teaching of history and a case study is conducted in a class of elementary school (9-10 year-old students). Hence some proposals to build a “space of constraints” and the analysis of «language practices» in history.

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    OpenEdition
    Article . 2011
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    Éducation et didactique
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bernie Sullivan; Caitriona McDonagh; Cornelia Connolly; Máirín Glenn; +1 Authors

    Building on Woolf’s (2020. “Exploring Pedagogies to Elevate Inquiry: Teaching Action Research in the Third Space.” Educational Action Research 28 (4): 579–596) conceptions of `third space theory’ this article describes how, in order to find continuity between theory and practice, the convenors of a network for educational action researchers created a `third space’ to support knowledge creation in a trans-generational and trans-institutional community. Our approach to third space theory draws on Woolf’s work which describes 1) perceived space 2) conceived space and 3) lived space. The article demonstrates a new understanding of third space theory as we seek to support professional knowledge creation amongst teachers and teacher educators. Key issues and challenges in the establishment of a values-based educational action research network and its move to an online setting are introduced. We explain the generation of a living educational theory from the research community, which was convened by the authors. We have created both a face-to-face and an online professional development community of action researchers. The original contribution of this paper is the creation of an open and shared learning community to support action research practitioners in their processes of accessing, collaborating in and undertaking research. The significance of our paper is in the emergence of socially constructed knowledge in a fluid and flexible space that is underpinned by our lived values of inclusion and respect. peer-reviewed

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    Irish Educational Studies
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    Irish Educational Studies
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Irish Educational Studies
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  • Authors: Briole, Alain;

    L’évaluation de l’action 7 IDEFI, ”Création de sections technologiques” intègre dans son dispositif la prise en compte des enjeux sociaux de l’innovation. Pour dépasser les logiques fonctionnaliste et instrumentale généralement retenues, l’évaluation développe une démarche centrée sur les compétences sociales et le développement personnel des étudiants. Cette communication expose la méthodologie générale de cette démarche, son opérationnalisation et le cadre théorique qui la soutient. The evaluation of action 7 IDEFI , ”Création de sections technologiques” tries to catch the social challenge underlying this innovation. Beyond the functionalist approach, the evaluation focuses on social competences and students' self-development. This paper shows the methodological and conceptual frame of the study.

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