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  • 14. Life underwater

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    Authors: Fujie, Gou; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Morgan, Jason P.; +4 Authors

    Abstract The nature of incoming sediments is a key controlling factor for the occurrence of megathrust earthquakes in subduction zones. In the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake (offshore Japan), smectite-rich clay minerals transported by the subducting oceanic plate played a critical role in the development of giant interplate coseismic slip near the trench. Recently, we conducted intensive controlled-source seismic surveys at the northwestern part of the Pacific plate to investigate the nature of the incoming oceanic plate. Our seismic reflection data reveal that the thickness of the sediment layer between the seafloor and the acoustic basement is a few hundred meters in most areas, but there are a few areas where the sediments appear to be extremely thin. Our wide-angle seismic data suggest that the acoustic basement in these thin-sediment areas is not the top of the oceanic crust, but instead a magmatic intrusion within the sediments associated with recent volcanic activity. This means that the lower part of the sediments, including the smectite-rich pelagic red-brown clay layer, has been heavily disturbed and thermally metamorphosed in these places. The giant coseismic slip of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake stopped in the vicinity of a thin-sediment area that is just beginning to subduct. Based on these observations, we propose that post-spreading volcanic activity on the oceanic plate prior to subduction is a factor that can shape the size and distribution of interplate earthquakes after subduction through its disturbance and thermal metamorphism of the local sediment layer.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    Geology
    Article
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    Geology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Geology
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      Geology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Randelle M. Bundy; Alessandro Tagliabue; Nicholas J. Hawco; Peter L. Morton; +7 Authors

    Cobalt (Co) is an important bioactive trace metal that is the metal cofactor in cobalamin (vitamin B12) which can limit or co-limit phytoplankton growth in many regions of the ocean. Total dissolved and labile Co measurements in the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean during the U.S. GEOTRACES Arctic expedition (GN01) and the Canadian International Polar Year GEOTRACES expedition (GIPY14) revealed a dynamic biogeochemical cycle for Co in this basin. The major sources of Co in the Arctic were from shelf regions and rivers, with only minimal contributions from other freshwater sources (sea ice, snow) and eolian deposition. The most striking feature was the extremely high concentrations of dissolved Co in the upper 100 m, with concentrations routinely exceeding 800 pmol L−1 over the shelf regions. This plume of high Co persisted throughout the Arctic basin and extended to the North Pole, where sources of Co shifted from primarily shelf-derived to riverine, as freshwater from Arctic rivers was entrained in the Transpolar Drift. Dissolved Co was also strongly organically complexed in the Arctic, ranging from 70 % to 100 % complexed in the surface and deep ocean, respectively. Deep-water concentrations of dissolved Co were remarkably consistent throughout the basin (∼55 pmol L−1), with concentrations reflecting those of deep Atlantic water and deep-ocean scavenging of dissolved Co. A biogeochemical model of Co cycling was used to support the hypothesis that the majority of the high surface Co in the Arctic was emanating from the shelf. The model showed that the high concentrations of Co observed were due to the large shelf area of the Arctic, as well as to dampened scavenging of Co by manganese-oxidizing (Mn-oxidizing) bacteria due to the lower temperatures. The majority of this scavenging appears to have occurred in the upper 200 m, with minimal additional scavenging below this depth. Evidence suggests that both dissolved Co (dCo) and labile Co (LCo) are increasing over time on the Arctic shelf, and these limited temporal results are consistent with other tracers in the Arctic. These elevated surface concentrations of Co likely lead to a net flux of Co out of the Arctic, with implications for downstream biological uptake of Co in the North Atlantic and elevated Co in North Atlantic Deep Water. Understanding the current distributions of Co in the Arctic will be important for constraining changes to Co inputs resulting from regional intensification of freshwater fluxes from ice and permafrost melt in response to ongoing climate change.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
      Preprint . 2020
      License: CC BY
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2020
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: Christina L Belanger;

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2012
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cermeno, P; Maranon, E; Rodriguez, J; Fernandez, E;

    We have determined the relationship between carbon-specific photosynthesis and phytoplankton cell size in a coastal ecosystem. The normalized size spectra of carbon (C) biomass and photosynthesis allow to determine both biomass and photosynthesis within any size class along the community size spectrum. By dividing the size spectra of photosynthesis and biomass, the size spectrum of C-specific photosynthesis is derived. Our results indicated a high variability in the slope of the C-specific photosynthesis size spectrum. Under favourable conditions for growth, in the upper euphotic layer, the slope was positive, indicating that larger phytoplankton attained higher C-specific photosynthesis rates than the smaller cells. This pattern represents a significant departure from the expected, literature value of � 0.25 for the size-scaling of biomass-specific metabolism. We suggest that this change in the slope may be caused by the changes in the taxonomic composition along the community size spectrum. Towards the bottom of the euphotic layer, we observed a decrease in the slope of the C-specific photosynthesis size spectrum, which could be associated with an enhanced package effect in larger cells under light-limited conditions. These results question the applicability of single and overall exponents to describe the size scaling of photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton assemblages.

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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2005
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Journal of Plankton Research
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2005
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      Journal of Plankton Research
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Rollion-Bard, C.; Blamart, D.; Trebosc, J.; Tricot, G.; +2 Authors

    Dissolved boron in modern seawater occurs in the form of two species, trigonal boric acid B(OH)(3) and tetrahedral borate ion B(OH)(4)(-). One of the key assumption in the use of boron isotopic compositions of carbonates as pH proxy is that only borate ions, B(OH)(4)(-), are incorporated into the carbonate. Here, we investigate the speciation of boron in deep-sea coral microstructures (Lophelia pertusa specimen) by using high field magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (B-11 MAS NMR) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). We observe both boron coordination species, but in different proportions depending on the coral microstructure, i.e. centres of calcification versus fibres. These results suggest that careful sampling is necessary before performing boron isotopic measurements in deep-sea corals. By combining the proportions of B(OH)(3) and B(OH)(4)(-) determined by NMR and our previous ion microprobe boron isotope measurements, we propose a new equation for the relation between seawater pH and boron isotopic composition in deep-sea corals. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. International audience

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    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2011
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Geochimica et Cosmoc...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2011
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    Authors: Gwenaël Abril; Steven Bouillon; François Darchambeau; Cristian R. Teodoru; +7 Authors

    Abstract. Inland waters have been recognized as a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the gas transfer velocity and the water–air gradient of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Currently, direct measurements of water pCO2 remain scarce in freshwaters, and most published pCO2 data are calculated from temperature, pH and total alkalinity (TA). Here, we compare calculated (pH and TA) and measured (equilibrator and headspace) water pCO2 in a large array of temperate and tropical freshwaters. The 761 data points cover a wide range of values for TA (0 to 14 200 μmol L−1), pH (3.94 to 9.17), measured pCO2 (36 to 23 000 ppmv), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (29 to 3970 μmol L−1). Calculated pCO2 were >10% higher than measured pCO2 in 60% of the samples (with a median overestimation of calculated pCO2 compared to measured pCO2 of 2560 ppmv) and were >100% higher in the 25% most organic-rich and acidic samples (with a median overestimation of 9080 ppmv). We suggest these large overestimations of calculated pCO2 with respect to measured pCO2 are due to the combination of two cumulative effects: (1) a more significant contribution of organic acids anions to TA in waters with low carbonate alkalinity and high DOC concentrations; (2) a lower buffering capacity of the carbonate system at low pH, which increases the sensitivity of calculated pCO2 to TA in acidic and organic-rich waters. No empirical relationship could be derived from our data set in order to correct calculated pCO2 for this bias. Owing to the widespread distribution of acidic, organic-rich freshwaters, we conclude that regional and global estimates of CO2 outgassing from freshwaters based on pH and TA data only are most likely overestimated, although the magnitude of the overestimation needs further quantitative analysis. Direct measurements of pCO2 are recommended in inland waters in general, and in particular in acidic, poorly buffered freshwaters.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Isaac Ankamah-Yeboah; Claire W. Armstrong; Stephen Hynes; Bui Bich Xuan; +1 Authors

    ecent events around the world have revealed varying degrees of public support for climate change and environmental regulation. Applying a latent class logit model, this study investigates Norwegian and Scottish public’s economic support for proposed deep sea management policies for novel attributes, identifying the presence of preference heterogeneity. Marine litter and health of fish stocks were the attributes with the highest values in absolute terms. This was followed by the size of the protected area coverage, whilst the creation of jobs was the least valued. The results highlight public support for the further collective action required by the EU in moving beyond the 2020 objective of achieving good environmental status of Europe’s seas, despite the low WTP values of the minority classes in each country. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in the Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy on 18 May 2021, available online: https://doi.org/10.1080/21606544.2021.1924286.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Audrey J. Geffen; Clive Fox; Richard D.M. Nash;

    Temperature development relationships were determined for batches of Irish Sea cod Gadus morhua eggs incubated in flow‐through incubators. Hatching began 16·4 days after fertilization (DAF) at 6° C, 10·3 DAF at 8° C, 9·4 DAF at 10° C and 7·4 DAF at 12° C. Egg mortality increased at the higher temperatures, but survival was >80%. Results were compared with published data at four comparable stage end points: the end of blastula, the end of gastrula, the point of growth of the embryo completely surrounding the yolk and the point when 50% of the eggs were hatched. All the studies showed a curvilinear relationship between age at stage and temperature. There was a 12 day inter‐study difference in time to 50% hatch at 2° C and 4 day difference at 10° C. There were no consistent trends that differentiated eastern v. western, or northern v. southern populations. A single model for cod egg incubation time from fertilization to 50% hatch was derived based on data from six cod populations, but it is recommended that individual stock relationships should be used where possible.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Fish Biol...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Fish Biology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Fish Biol...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Fish Biology
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Matthew P. Humphreys; Eric P. Achterberg; Alex M. Griffiths; Alison McDonald; +1 Authors

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in seawater was measured in a batch process for 552 samples collected during two cruises in the northeastern Atlantic and Nordic Seas from June to August 2012. One cruise was part of the UK Ocean Acidification research programme, and the other was a repeat hydrographic transect of the Extended Ellett Line. In combination with measurements made of other variables on these and other cruises, these data can be used to constrain the anthropogenic component of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the interior ocean, and to help to determine the influence of biological carbon uptake on surface ocean carbonate chemistry. The measurements have been processed, quality-controlled and submitted to an in-preparation global compilation of seawater δ13CDIC data, and are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre. The observed δ13CDIC values fall in a range from −0.58 to +2.37 ‰, relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite standard. The mean of the absolute differences between samples collected in duplicate in the same container type during both cruises and measured consecutively is 0.10 ‰, which corresponds to a 1σ uncertainty of 0.09 ‰, and which is within the range reported by other published studies of this kind. A crossover analysis was performed with nearby historical δ13CDIC data, indicating that any systematic offsets between our measurements and previously published results are negligible. Data doi:10.5285/09760a3a-c2b5-250b-e053-6c86abc037c0 (northeastern Atlantic), doi:10.5285/09511dd0-51db-0e21-e053-6c86abc09b95 (Nordic Seas).

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: OceanRep
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-...
    Preprint . 2015
    License: CC BY
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Article . Preprint
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    Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2015
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    Other literature type . 2018
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-...
      Preprint . 2015
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      Earth System Science Data (ESSD)
      Other literature type . 2018
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: H. Brenner; U. Braeckman; M. Le Guitton; F. J. R. Meysman;

    Abstract. It has been previously proposed that alkalinity release from sediments can play an important role in the carbonate dynamics on continental shelves, lowering the pCO2 of seawater and hence increasing the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. To test this hypothesis, sedimentary alkalinity generation was quantified within cohesive and permeable sediments across the North Sea during two cruises in September 2011 (basin-wide) and June 2012 (Dutch coastal zone). Benthic fluxes of oxygen (O2), alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined using shipboard closed sediment incubations. Our results show that sediments can form an important source of alkalinity for the overlying water, particularly in the shallow southern North Sea, where high AT and DIC fluxes were recorded in near-shore sediments of the Belgian, Dutch and German coastal zone. In contrast, fluxes of AT and DIC are substantially lower in the deeper, seasonally stratified, northern part of the North Sea. Based on the data collected, we performed a model analysis to constrain the main pathways of alkalinity generation in the sediment, and to quantify how sedimentary alkalinity drives atmospheric CO2 uptake in the southern North Sea. Overall, our results show that sedimentary alkalinity generation should be regarded as a key component in the CO2 dynamics of shallow coastal systems.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-12...
    Preprint . 2015
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    Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-12...
      Preprint . 2015
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: Fujie, Gou; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Morgan, Jason P.; +4 Authors

    Abstract The nature of incoming sediments is a key controlling factor for the occurrence of megathrust earthquakes in subduction zones. In the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake (offshore Japan), smectite-rich clay minerals transported by the subducting oceanic plate played a critical role in the development of giant interplate coseismic slip near the trench. Recently, we conducted intensive controlled-source seismic surveys at the northwestern part of the Pacific plate to investigate the nature of the incoming oceanic plate. Our seismic reflection data reveal that the thickness of the sediment layer between the seafloor and the acoustic basement is a few hundred meters in most areas, but there are a few areas where the sediments appear to be extremely thin. Our wide-angle seismic data suggest that the acoustic basement in these thin-sediment areas is not the top of the oceanic crust, but instead a magmatic intrusion within the sediments associated with recent volcanic activity. This means that the lower part of the sediments, including the smectite-rich pelagic red-brown clay layer, has been heavily disturbed and thermally metamorphosed in these places. The giant coseismic slip of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake stopped in the vicinity of a thin-sediment area that is just beginning to subduct. Based on these observations, we propose that post-spreading volcanic activity on the oceanic plate prior to subduction is a factor that can shape the size and distribution of interplate earthquakes after subduction through its disturbance and thermal metamorphism of the local sediment layer.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Geology
    Article
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    Geology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Geology
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      Geology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Randelle M. Bundy; Alessandro Tagliabue; Nicholas J. Hawco; Peter L. Morton; +7 Authors

    Cobalt (Co) is an important bioactive trace metal that is the metal cofactor in cobalamin (vitamin B12) which can limit or co-limit phytoplankton growth in many regions of the ocean. Total dissolved and labile Co measurements in the Canadian sector of the Arctic Ocean during the U.S. GEOTRACES Arctic expedition (GN01) and the Canadian International Polar Year GEOTRACES expedition (GIPY14) revealed a dynamic biogeochemical cycle for Co in this basin. The major sources of Co in the Arctic were from shelf regions and rivers, with only minimal contributions from other freshwater sources (sea ice, snow) and eolian deposition. The most striking feature was the extremely high concentrations of dissolved Co in the upper 100 m, with concentrations routinely exceeding 800 pmol L−1 over the shelf regions. This plume of high Co persisted throughout the Arctic basin and extended to the North Pole, where sources of Co shifted from primarily shelf-derived to riverine, as freshwater from Arctic rivers was entrained in the Transpolar Drift. Dissolved Co was also strongly organically complexed in the Arctic, ranging from 70 % to 100 % complexed in the surface and deep ocean, respectively. Deep-water concentrations of dissolved Co were remarkably consistent throughout the basin (∼55 pmol L−1), with concentrations reflecting those of deep Atlantic water and deep-ocean scavenging of dissolved Co. A biogeochemical model of Co cycling was used to support the hypothesis that the majority of the high surface Co in the Arctic was emanating from the shelf. The model showed that the high concentrations of Co observed were due to the large shelf area of the Arctic, as well as to dampened scavenging of Co by manganese-oxidizing (Mn-oxidizing) bacteria due to the lower temperatures. The majority of this scavenging appears to have occurred in the upper 200 m, with minimal additional scavenging below this depth. Evidence suggests that both dissolved Co (dCo) and labile Co (LCo) are increasing over time on the Arctic shelf, and these limited temporal results are consistent with other tracers in the Arctic. These elevated surface concentrations of Co likely lead to a net flux of Co out of the Arctic, with implications for downstream biological uptake of Co in the North Atlantic and elevated Co in North Atlantic Deep Water. Understanding the current distributions of Co in the Arctic will be important for constraining changes to Co inputs resulting from regional intensification of freshwater fluxes from ice and permafrost melt in response to ongoing climate change.

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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
    Preprint . 2020
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-202...
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2020
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: Christina L Belanger;