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  • 10. No inequality

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Roisin, Plunkett; Brendan D, Kelly;

    Involuntary psychiatric inpatient care presents a unique ethical challenge not least because the dignity of a person whose liberty and autonomy are restricted is inherently at risk. Understanding patients' experience of voluntary and involuntary care is an important part of ensuring that dignity is upheld as a key value. This study aimed to provide the first thematic synthesis of the existing literature on patient experience of dignity in voluntary and involuntary inpatient psychiatric care. PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine), PsycInfo (American Psychological Association), the Cochrane Library and bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language studies from the start date of the databases through May 2020. Systematic searches identified 202 original papers. Consensus criteria were used to determine study inclusion through abstract and manuscript review. Eighteen articles were initially identified as suitable and nine met criteria for the final analysis. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Given the high proportion of qualitative literature, a thematic synthesis approach was adopted. Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklists were used to assess quality of papers. Familiarization and line-by-line coding were carried out on qualitative studies and a thematic framework developed using an iterative approach. Six key themes emerged: coercion; powerlessness; care environment; relationship to staff; impact of involuntary treatment, and paradoxes. These encompassed 15 subthemes, comprising 111 individual statements. Despite dignity being at the core of this review, only five of the identified papers explicitly referenced the term. Nevertheless, core similarities in patient experiences and perspectives existed across a wide variety of primary studies from multiple sites. These themes can be taken to represent the components of dignified care and used as a framework for further research and service reform.

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    International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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      International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    The vast majority of immigrants to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century adopted first names that were common among natives. The rate of adoption of an American name increases with time in the US, although most immigrants adopt an American name within the first year of arrival. Choice of an American first name was associated with a more successful assimilation, as measured by job occupation scores, marriage to a US native and take-up of US citizenship. We examine economic determinants of name choice, by studying the relationship between changes in the proportion of immigrants with an American first name and changes in the concentration of immigrants as well as changes in local labor market conditions, across different census years. We find that high concentrations of immigrants of a given nationality in a particular location discouraged members of that nationality from taking American names. Poor local labor market conditions for immigrants (and good local labor market conditions for natives) led to more frequent name changes among immigrants.

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    SSRN Electronic Journal
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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    Labour Economics
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Ciência-UCP
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    EconStor
    Research . 2016
    Data sources: EconStor
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    EconStor
    Research . 2015
    Data sources: EconStor
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    Labour Economics
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    EconStor
    Research . 2015
    Data sources: EconStor
    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    EconStor
    Research . 2016
    Data sources: EconStor
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: UCL Discovery
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      Labour Economics
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: Ciência-UCP
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EconStor
      Research . 2016
      Data sources: EconStor
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EconStor
      Research . 2015
      Data sources: EconStor
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Labour Economics
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      EconStor
      Research . 2015
      Data sources: EconStor
      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      EconStor
      Research . 2016
      Data sources: EconStor
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    Authors: Niamh Walsh; Melissa Currid;
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    Age and Ageing
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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      Age and Ageing
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Age and Ageing
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    Authors: Anne-Lise Arnesen; Elina Lahelma; Lisbeth Lundahl; Elisabet Öhrn;

    The celebration of individual agency, which is closely connected to the promotion of the knowledge economy, competition and performance, is obvious in contemporary European education and youth policy, at national and supranational levels. Schools and teachers are thus expected to be crucial agents in fostering the development of flexible, responsible, self-governing and entrepreneurial citizens by adopting personalised pedagogies and continuous and close evaluation (Hartley, 2009). For example, the project Education Governance, Social Integration and Exclusion in Europe (EGSIE), which included studies from several European countries, revealed considerable consensus among teachers, principals and decision-makers on what constitutes a good student, a good teacher or a good head teacher, clearly reflecting such ideas about agency (Lindblad et al, 2002; Lindblad & Popkewitz, 2004). Consequently, structural and institutional power relations (Arnesen & Lundahl, forthcoming 2010) are downplayed and expressions of individual agency in terms of collective action and resistance are rendered more or less invisible. Furthermore, the emphasis on learning combined with high achievement and control may lead to more children and young people being marginalised and left with less room for agency, resulting in teachers’ attempts to promote socio-emotional development and fostering democratic citizenship being toned down. Such findings, however, make it no less essential to map and analyse new forms of influence and action, new freedoms and controls, individual as well as collective, resulting from or being in conflict with emerging power configurations This special issue highlights the subject of agency in Nordic educational institutions during the early 2000s, with respect to acting on, negotiating, opposing, transgressing and resisting, as well as examining the options for participation by various actors. It is suggested that altered relationships and increased tensions between individual ‘freedom’ (cf. Rose, 1999) and institutional control, as well as conflicting policies and values, bring about particular power dynamics, through which different actors within institutions may gain more or less influence. We also inquire into disruptions or actions that go against the grain. Whilst studies focusing on resistance often regard teachers and students as conflicting groups (see McFadden, 1995), our aim is also to search for alliances that might involve various constellations of students, teachers, and other actors. We look for contradictions in critical manifestations, since the position of being critical and in opposition is more open for some actors, e.g. middle-class boys and male teachers with permanent posts, than

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    European Educational Research Journal
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: SAGE TDM
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      European Educational Research Journal
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Paula Cristina Martins; Silvia M. Mendes; Glória Fernández-Pacheco; Iva Alexandra Barbosa Tendais;

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence of juvenile victimization, its demographic and socio-economic correlates, and predictors, using a random sample of 7–12th grade classes in three different-sized cities in Portugal. The sample consisted of 4,048 students (mean age = 15.27, standard deviation = 2.08). The overall prevalence of victimization, the diversity of its forms, and the prevalence of minor and serious victimization were calculated and used as broad measures. Findings show that half of the participants reported having suffered at least one victimization experience. Bivariate analyses revealed that specific demographic variables (age and city size) and socio-economic variables (relative family and personal affluence, number of caregivers, parents’ and personal immigrant status and father employment status) were associated with all broad measures of lifetime victimization. Multivariate analyses showed that being older (16-21 years), living in a medium or large city, having low relative family and personal affluence, and immigrant status were found to be associated with a heightened risk of lifetime victimization. These results allow us to identify patterns of youth victimization in Portugal, monitor its evolution, and compare these data cross-nationally. Financial Support by CIEC (Research Centre on Child Studies, IE, UMinho; FCT R&D unit 317, Portugal) by the Strategic Project UID/CED/00317/2013, with financial support of National Funds through the FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology) and co-financed by European Regional Development Funds (FEDER) through the Competitiveness and Internationalization Operational Program (POCI) with the reference POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007562 info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ European Journal on ...arrow_drop_down
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    The paper contributes to the measurement of poverty and vulnerability in three ways. First, it proposes a new approach to separating poverty into chronic and transient components. Second, it provides corrections for the statistical biases introduced when using a small number of periods to estimate the importance of vulnerability and transient poverty. Third, it applies these tools to the measurement of chronic and transient poverty in China using a rich panel data set that extends over 17 years. Alternative measurement techniques are found to yield significantly different estimates of the relative importance of chronic and transient poverty. The precision of the estimates is also considerably enhanced by simple statistical corrections. This research was partly funded by Canada's SSHRC, by Québec's FQRSC and by the National Science Foundation (SES-0214702). It was also carried out with support from the Poverty and Economic Policy (PEP) Research Network, which is financed by the Government of Canada through the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), and by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). 12 páginas, 6 figuras, 4 tablas.-- El pdf del artículo es el documento de trabajo.

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    Journal of Development Economics
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Development Economics
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    Authors: Mitra Pikwer; Cecilia Orellana; Henrik Källberg; Andreas Pikwer; +5 Authors

    Background: In women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it has been observed that during pregnancy a majority of patients experience amelioration, but after delivery a relapse of the disease is common. However, there are few studies, with diverging results, addressing the effect of parity on the severity of RA over time. Our aim was to explore the impact of parity, with stratification for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) status as well as for onset during reproductive age or not. Methods: Female RA cases aged 18-70 years were recruited for the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA). Information on disease severity (the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and the disease activity score 28 (DAS28)) was retrieved from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register at inclusion and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. Mixed models were used to compare mean DAS28 and HAQ scores over time in parous and nulliparous women. Mean differences at individual follow-up visits were compared using analysis of covariance. The odds of having DAS28 or HAQ above the median in parous verus nulliparous women were estimated in logistic regression models. Results: A total of 1237 female cases (mean age 51 years, 65 % ACPA-positive) were included. ACPA-negative parous women, aged 18-44 years, had on average 1.17 units higher DAS28 (p < 0.001) and 0.43 units higher HAQ score (p < 0.001) compared to nulliparous women during the follow-up time, adjusted for age. In this subgroup, the average DAS28 and HAQ scores were significantly higher in parous women at all follow-up time points. Younger parous ACPA-negative women were significantly more likely to have DAS28 and HAQ values above the median compared to nulliparous women at all follow-up visits. No association between parity and severity of ACPA-positive disease was observed. Conclusions: Parity was a predictor of a more severe RA among ACPA-negative younger women, which might indicate that immunomodulatory changes during and after pregnancy affect RA severity, in particular for the ACPA-negative RA phenotype.

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    Arthritis Research &amp; Therapy
    Article
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      Arthritis Research &amp; Therapy
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    Authors: Leen Rahnu; Allan Puur; Luule Sakkeus; Martin Klesment;

    Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005) and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997), and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

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    Demographic Research
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    Demographic Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Demographic Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fanny Thornton; Karen E. McNamara; Carol Farbotko; Olivia Dun; +3 Authors

    Research concerning human mobility in the context of environmental change is primarily focused on analyses of the nexus itself. We have taken a less-travelled route, focusing on those who take an interest in the issue, engage with it professionally or seek to address the multitude of social, economic and political dimensions associated with it. We used an online survey to examine perceptions of the human mobility/environmental change nexus amongst those who work with or within it (n=262 respondents), situating our findings within the policy development they often seek or help to propel. We outline respondents' overall characteristics, their conceptualisation of the human mobility/environmental change nexus and, finally, their policy preferences or priorities. We find, overall, that respondents are concerned with mobility approaches that promote equity as well as economic opportunity. International audience

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    Population and Environment
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Callie Mady;

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather data on metalinguistic awareness, strategy use and self-assessments of their languages. The results showed that the immigrant group outperformed the other two groups on the French proficiency tests whereas there were no significant differences on the English tests or in self-assessed language of origin proficiencies for the multilingual groups. Superior performance of the immigrant group was not determined to be a result of enhanced metalinguistic knowledge or strategy use.

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    Authors: Roisin, Plunkett; Brendan D, Kelly;

    Involuntary psychiatric inpatient care presents a unique ethical challenge not least because the dignity of a person whose liberty and autonomy are restricted is inherently at risk. Understanding patients' experience of voluntary and involuntary care is an important part of ensuring that dignity is upheld as a key value. This study aimed to provide the first thematic synthesis of the existing literature on patient experience of dignity in voluntary and involuntary inpatient psychiatric care. PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine), PsycInfo (American Psychological Association), the Cochrane Library and bibliographies of relevant articles were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language studies from the start date of the databases through May 2020. Systematic searches identified 202 original papers. Consensus criteria were used to determine study inclusion through abstract and manuscript review. Eighteen articles were initially identified as suitable and nine met criteria for the final analysis. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Given the high proportion of qualitative literature, a thematic synthesis approach was adopted. Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklists were used to assess quality of papers. Familiarization and line-by-line coding were carried out on qualitative studies and a thematic framework developed using an iterative approach. Six key themes emerged: coercion; powerlessness; care environment; relationship to staff; impact of involuntary treatment, and paradoxes. These encompassed 15 subthemes, comprising 111 individual statements. Despite dignity being at the core of this review, only five of the identified papers explicitly referenced the term. Nevertheless, core similarities in patient experiences and perspectives existed across a wide variety of primary studies from multiple sites. These themes can be taken to represent the components of dignified care and used as a framework for further research and service reform.

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    International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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      International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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    The vast majority of immigrants to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century adopted first names that were common among natives. The rate of adoption of an American name increases with time in the US, although most immigrants adopt an American name within the first year of arrival. Choice of an American first name was associated with a more successful assimilation, as measured by job occupation scores, marriage to a US native and take-up of US citizenship. We examine economic determinants of name choice, by studying the relationship between changes in the proportion of immigrants with an American first name and changes in the concentration of immigrants as well as changes in local labor market conditions, across different census years. We find that high concentrations of immigrants of a given nationality in a particular location discouraged members of that nationality from taking American names. Poor local labor market conditions for immigrants (and good local labor market conditions for natives) led to more frequent name changes among immigrants.

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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2020
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    Labour Economics
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Ciência-UCP
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    EconStor
    Research . 2016
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    Research . 2015
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    Labour Economics
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    EconStor
    Research . 2015
    Data sources: EconStor
    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    EconStor
    Research . 2016
    Data sources: EconStor
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ SSRN Electronic Jour...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Labour Economics
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: Ciência-UCP
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EconStor
      Research . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EconStor
      Research . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Labour Economics
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      EconStor
      Research . 2015
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Research . 2016
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