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Geophysical Imaging of the Critical Zone along the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), SE Iberian Peninsula

Authors: Handoyo Handoyo; Juan Alcalde; Irene DeFelipe; Imma Palomeras; Raquel Martín-Banda; Julián García-Mayordomo; David Martí; +5 Authors

Geophysical Imaging of the Critical Zone along the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), SE Iberian Peninsula

Abstract

The critical zone (CZ) represents the most-shallow subsurface, where the bio-, hydro-, and geospheres interact with anthropogenic activity. To characterize the thickness and lateral variations of the CZ, here we focus on the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), one of the most tectonically active regions in the Iberian Peninsula. Within the EBSZ, the Guadalentín Depression is a highly populated area with intensive agricultural activity, where the characterization of the CZ would provide valuable assets for land use management and seismic hazard assessments. To achieve this, we have conducted an interdisciplinary geophysical study along the eastern border of the Guadalentín Depression to characterize the CZ and the architecture of the shallow subsurface. The datasets used include Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), first-arrival travel time seismic tomography, and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). The geophysical datasets combined help to constrain the high-resolution structure of the subsurface and image active fault systems along four transects. The resulting geophysical models have allowed us to interpret the first ~150 m of the subsurface and has revealed: (i) the variable thickness of the CZ; (ii) the CZ relationship between the fault zone and topographic slope; and (iii) the differences in CZ thickness associated with the geological units. Our results provide a method for studying the shallow subsurface of active faults, complementing previous geological models based on paleo-seismological trenches, and can be used to improve the CZ assessment of tectonically active regions.

The authors would like to thank the following: The project INTERGEO (CGL2013-47412-C2-1-P) GEO3BCN-CSIC for providing access to the data. SeisDARE provides public access to the seismic data [86]. The KEMDIKBUDRISTEK of the Republic of Indonesia for providing a Ph.D. scholarship to the first author. The GIPP-GFZ (Germany) and Lisbon University (Portugal) provided the instrumentation. Additionally, we sincerely thank Seismic Unix CWP (Center for Wave Phenomena, Colorado School of Mines) for allowing us to use the free academic license software, and we also thank everyone who was directly or indirectly involved in this work. J.A. is funded by grant IJC2018-036074-I and by MCIN/AEI /10.13039/501100011033. I.P. is funded by the Spanish Government and the Universidad de Salamanca (Beatriz Galindo grant BEGAL 18/00090). This project was funded by Grant 2017SGR1022 (GREG) from the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR); EU (H2020) 871121 (EPOS-SP); and EIT-RawMaterias 17024 from the European Institute of Technology (EIT) (SIT4ME).

Peer reviewed

Country
Spain
Keywords

Critical zone (CZ), fault, Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes, Geodinámica, critical zone (CZ), Process Chemistry and Technology, 2507 Geofísica, General Engineering, critical zone (CZ); ERT; fault; MASW; tomography, tomography, Geofísica, Fault, Computer Science Applications, 551.24:550.83(460), MASW, General Materials Science, ERT, Tomography, Instrumentation

86 references, page 1 of 9

1. Banwart, S.A.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Zhu, Y.G.; Peacock, C.L.; Sparks, D.L. Soil Functions: Connecting Earth's Critical Zone. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2019, 47, 333-359. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

2. Brantley, S.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. Crossing disciplines and scales to understand the critical zone. Elements 2007, 3, 307-314. [CrossRef]

3. National Research Council (NRC). Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences; National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2001.

4. European Commission. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic, and Social Committee, and the Committee of Regions. In Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM 2006. 231); Commission of the European Communities: Brussels, Belgium, 2006.

5. Panagos, P.; Van Liedekerke, M.; Jones, A.; Montanarella, L. European Soil DataCentre: Response to European policy support and public data requirements. Land Use Policy 2012, 29, 329-338. [CrossRef]

6. Field, J.P.; Breshears, D.D.; Law, D.J.; Villegas, J.C.; López-Hoffman, L.; Brooks, P.D.; Chorover, J.; Barron-Gafford, G.A.; Gallery, R.E.; Litvak, M.E.; et al. Critical Zone Services: Expanding Context, Constraints, and Currency beyond Ecosystem Services. Vadose Zone J. 2015, 14, vzj2014.10.0142. [CrossRef]

7. Montanarella, L.; Panagos, P. Policy relevance of critical zone science. Land Use Policy 2015, 49, 86-91. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

8. Anderson, S.P.; Hinckley, E.-L.; Kelly, P.; Langston, A. Variation in critical zone processes and architecture across slope aspects. Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 2014, 10, 28-33. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

9. Anderson, R.S.; Anderson, S.P.; Tucker, G.E. Rock damage and regolith transport by frost: An example of climate modulation of the geomorphology of the critical zone. Earth Surf. Process. Land. 2013, 38, 299-316. [CrossRef]

10. Rempe, D.M.; Dietrich, W.E. A bottom-up control on fresh-bedrock topography under landscapes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2014, 111, 6576-6581. [CrossRef]

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popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
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EPOS SP
European Plate Observing System Sustainability Phase
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 871121
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
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