publication . Article . 2005

Successful adaptation to climate change across scales

W. Neil Adger; Nigel W. Arnell; Emma L. Tompkins;
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  • Published: 11 Apr 2005 Journal: Global Environmental Change, volume 15, pages 77-86 (issn: 0959-3780, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Elsevier BV
Abstract
Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. We outline a set of normative evaluative criteria for judging the success of adaptations at different scales. We argue that elements of effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy are important in judging success in terms of the sustainability of developmen...
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free text keywords: Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Ecology, Geography, Planning and Development, Global and Planetary Change, Economics, Ecological systems theory, Equity (finance), Futures contract, Legitimacy, Vulnerability, Sustainability, Normative, Climate change, Environmental resource management, business.industry, business
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