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Publication . Article . 2016

The LOKI underwater imaging system and an automatic identification model for the detection of zooplankton taxa in the Arctic Ocean

Moritz S. Schmid; Cyril Aubry; Jordan Grigor; Louis Fortier;
Closed Access
Published: 01 Apr 2016 Journal: Methods in Oceanography, volume 15-16, pages 129-160 (issn: 2211-1220, Copyright policy )
Publisher: Elsevier BV

Abstract We deployed the Lightframe On-sight Keyspecies Investigation (LOKI) system, a novel underwater imaging system providing cutting-edge imaging quality, in the Canadian Arctic during fall 2013. A Random Forests machine learning model was built to automatically identify zooplankton in LOKI images. The model successfully distinguished between 114 different categories of zooplankton and particles. The high resolution taxonomical tree included many species, stages, as well as sub-groups based on animal orientation or condition in images. Results from a machine learning regression model of prosome length ( R 2 = 0.97 ) were used as a key predictor in the automatic identification model. Model internal validation of the automatic identification model on test data demonstrated that the model performed with overall high accuracy (86%) and specificity (86%). This was confirmed by confusion matrices for external testing results, based on automatic identifications for 2 complete stations. For station 101, from which images had also been used for training, accuracy and specificity were 85%. For station 126, from which images had not been used to train the model, accuracy and specificity were 81%. Further comparisons between model results and microscope identifications of zooplankton in samples from the two test stations were in good agreement for most taxa. LOKI’s image quality makes it possible to build accurate automatic identification models of very high taxonomic detail, which will play a critical role in future studies of zooplankton dynamics and zooplankton coupling with other trophic levels.

Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Orientation (computer vision) Remote sensing Simulation Random forest Tree (data structure) Test data Identification (information) Zooplankton Image quality Biology Arctic


Ocean Engineering, Aquatic Science, Oceanography

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