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Réponse à la sélection taille-dépendante anthropique et ses conséquences écologiques. Approche expérimentale avec le médaka (Oryzias latipes)

Authors: Renneville, Clémentine;

Réponse à la sélection taille-dépendante anthropique et ses conséquences écologiques. Approche expérimentale avec le médaka (Oryzias latipes)

Abstract

La perte de biodiversité induite par les humains touche plus particulièrement les espèces de grande taille corporelle et génère des pressions de sélection contre les grands individus. Un nombre croissant d’études montrent que la diminution des abondances de ces espèces s’accompagne d’une évolution rapide vers des tailles corporelles réduites. La problématique générale de la thèse était d’étudier expérimentalement, de manière intégrée, « des gènes à l’écosystème », les implications évolutives et écologiques de la perte rapide de biodiversité.À l’aide d’une expérience de sélection artificielle sur la taille corporelle de médaka (Oryzias latipes) pendant 6 générations, j’ai montré que (1) un ensemble de traits d’histoire de vie corrélé génétiquement à la taille (e.g. croissance somatique, âge et taille à maturité sexuelle, fécondité) pouvaient évoluer rapidement, (2) la réponse des traits des médakas dépend de la direction de sélection, et que (3) les changements phénotypiques peuvent être reliés à des changements d’expressions d’hormones hypophysaires impliqués dans la régulation de la croissance (i.e. hormone de croissance) et la reproduction (i.e. hormone de croissance et gonadotropines). Ces résultats suggèrent que les mécanismes d’adaptations des populations aux pressions anthropiques pourraient fortement modifier des traits clés pour leur maintien dans les écosystèmes. Par ailleurs, dans une autre expérience, j’ai montré que les variations phénotypiques (taille et de forme d’un médaka), peuvent avoir autant d’importance sur l’intensité de la cascade trophique qu’elles génèrent, que les variations démographiques (présence-absence du médaka). Ce résultat révèle l’importance des traits des organismes dans l’écosystème et suggère que des changements micro-évolutifs pourraient se répercuter dans les réseaux d’interactions biotiques. Cette thèse souligne la nécessité de mieux comprendre les mécanismes adaptatifs afin d’appréhender au mieux les conséquences écologiques des pressions de sélection d’origine anthropique qui s’exercent sur les populations naturelles. Elle ouvre des perspectives sur la compréhension jointe des mécanismes évolutifs et écologiques qui peuvent agir en retour l’un sur l’autre dans des boucles de rétrocontrôle éco-évolutives.

Biodiversity loss induced by humans particularly affects species which large body size and generates selection pressures against large individuals. A growing number of studies show that the decline in abundance of these species is accompanied by a rapid shift towards smaller body sizes. The aim of the thesis was to study experimentally, in an integrative approach, "from genes to ecosystem," the evolutionary and ecological implications of the rapid loss of biodiversity. I applied an artificial selection on body size of medaka (Oryzias latipes) during 6 generations, and I showed that (1) a set of life history traits genetically correlated to the size (e.g. somatic growth, age and size at sexual maturity, fecundity) could evolve rapidly, (2) the response of medaka traits depend on the selection direction, and (3) the phenotypic changes can be related to changes of pituitary hormones expressions involved in the regulation of growth (i.e. growth hormone) and reproduction (i.e. growth hormone and gonadotropins). These results suggest that the adaptation mechanisms of populations to anthropogenic pressures could significantly alter key features for keeping them in ecosystems. Furthermore, in another experiment, I showed that phenotypic variations (size and shape of a medaka), may have as much importance on the intensity of the trophic cascade they generate, as demographic variations (presence-absence of medaka). This result shows the importance of the traits of organisms

Country
France
Keywords

[SDV.EE]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Ecology, environment, Traits d'histoire de vie, [SDV.EE] Life Sciences [q-bio]/Ecology, environment, Oryzias latipes, Sélection, Médaka, Perte de biodiversité, Cascade trophique, Selection, Taille corporelle, Medaka, Trophic cascade

29 references, page 1 of 3

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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