publication . Article . 2015

An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission

Philip L. G. Birget; Jacob C. Koella;
Open Access
  • Published: 01 Jan 2015 Journal: PLoS ONE, volume 10, page e0144173
Abstract
Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protec...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: parasitic diseasesfungianimal structures
free text keywords: Medicine, R, Science, Q, Research Article, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine, Anopheles, biology.organism_classification, biology, Insecticide-Treated Bednets, Toxicology, Malaria transmission, Population, education.field_of_study, education, Mosquito control, Disease Elimination, Malaria, medicine.disease
Funded by
SNSF| Resource ecology of host-parasite interactions and evolution
Project
  • Funder: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
  • Project Code: 31003A_144207
  • Funding stream: Project funding | Project funding (Div. I-III)
59 references, page 1 of 4

1 Killeen GF, Seyoum A, Gimnig JE, Stevenson JC, Drakeley CJ, Chitnis N. Made-to-measure malaria vector control strategies: rational design based on insecticide properties and coverage of blood resources for mosquitoes. Malar J. 2014;13:146 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-146 24739261 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2 Chitnis N, Smith T, Steketee R. A mathematical model for the dynamics of malaria in mosquitoes feeding on a heterogeneous host population. J Biol Dyn. 2008 7;2(3):259–285. Available from: 10.1080/17513750701769857 22876869 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

3 Killeen GF, Smith TA. Exploring the contributions of bed nets, cattle, insecticides and excitorepellency to malaria control: a deterministic model of mosquito host-seeking behaviour and mortality. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007 9;101(9):867–880. Available from: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.04.022 17631372 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

4 Le Menach A, Takala S, McKenzie FE, Perisse A, Harris A, Flahault A, et al An elaborated feeding cycle model for reductions in vectorial capacity of night-biting mosquitoes by insecticide-treated nets. Malaria Journal. 2007;6(1):10 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-10 17254339 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

5 Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Lo TQ, Kamau L, Kolczak MS, Phillips-Howard PA, et al Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003 4;68(4 Suppl):16–22. 12749481 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

6 Atieli HE, Zhou G, Afrane Y, Lee MC, Mwanzo I, Githeko AK, et al Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, usage, and malaria transmission in the highlands of western Kenya. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:113 Available from: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-113 21682919 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

7 Bayoh MN, Mathias DK, Odiere MR, Mutuku FM, Kamau L, Gimnig JE, et al Anopheles gambiae: historical population decline associated with regional distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets in western Nyanza Province, Kenya. Malar J. 2010;9:62 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-62 20187956 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

8 Kweka EJ, Nkya WMM, Mahande AM, Assenga C, Mosha FW, Lyatuu EE, et al Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania. Malar J. 2008;7:59 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-59 18423018 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

9 Alonso P, Lindsay S, Armstrong J, de Francisco A, Shenton F, Greenwood B, et al The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. The Lancet. 1991;337(8756):1499–1502. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014067369193194E 10.1016/0140-6736(91)93194-E [DOI]

10 Bhattarai A, Ali AS, Kachur SP, Martensson A, Abbas AK, Khatib R, et al Impact of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy and Insecticide-Treated Nets on Malaria Burden in Zanzibar. PLoS Medicine. 2007;4(11):e309 Available from: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040309 17988171 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

11 Mutuku FM, King CH, Mungai P, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Muchiri EM, et al Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):356 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-356 22165904 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

12 Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, Kuile FOt, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, et al Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003;68(4):121–127. 12749495 [PubMed]

13 Russell TL, Lwetoijera DW, Maliti D, Chipwaza B, Kihonda J, Charlwood JD, et al Impact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated nets. Malaria Journal. 2010;9(1):187 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-187 20579399 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

14 Lindsay S, Adiamah J, Armstrong J. The effect of permethrin-impregnated bednets on house entry by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1992;82(01):49–55. Available from: http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=2621828 10.1017/S0007485300051488 [DOI]

15 Moore SJ, Hill N, Ruiz C, Cameron MM. Field evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellents and fumigants against the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2007;44(4):624–630. 10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[624:FEOTUP]2.0.CO;2 17695017 [PubMed] [DOI]

59 references, page 1 of 4
Abstract
Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protec...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: parasitic diseasesfungianimal structures
free text keywords: Medicine, R, Science, Q, Research Article, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine, Anopheles, biology.organism_classification, biology, Insecticide-Treated Bednets, Toxicology, Malaria transmission, Population, education.field_of_study, education, Mosquito control, Disease Elimination, Malaria, medicine.disease
Funded by
SNSF| Resource ecology of host-parasite interactions and evolution
Project
  • Funder: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
  • Project Code: 31003A_144207
  • Funding stream: Project funding | Project funding (Div. I-III)
59 references, page 1 of 4

1 Killeen GF, Seyoum A, Gimnig JE, Stevenson JC, Drakeley CJ, Chitnis N. Made-to-measure malaria vector control strategies: rational design based on insecticide properties and coverage of blood resources for mosquitoes. Malar J. 2014;13:146 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-146 24739261 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2 Chitnis N, Smith T, Steketee R. A mathematical model for the dynamics of malaria in mosquitoes feeding on a heterogeneous host population. J Biol Dyn. 2008 7;2(3):259–285. Available from: 10.1080/17513750701769857 22876869 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

3 Killeen GF, Smith TA. Exploring the contributions of bed nets, cattle, insecticides and excitorepellency to malaria control: a deterministic model of mosquito host-seeking behaviour and mortality. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007 9;101(9):867–880. Available from: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.04.022 17631372 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

4 Le Menach A, Takala S, McKenzie FE, Perisse A, Harris A, Flahault A, et al An elaborated feeding cycle model for reductions in vectorial capacity of night-biting mosquitoes by insecticide-treated nets. Malaria Journal. 2007;6(1):10 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-10 17254339 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

5 Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Lo TQ, Kamau L, Kolczak MS, Phillips-Howard PA, et al Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on entomologic indices in an area of intense year-round malaria transmission. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003 4;68(4 Suppl):16–22. 12749481 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

6 Atieli HE, Zhou G, Afrane Y, Lee MC, Mwanzo I, Githeko AK, et al Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, usage, and malaria transmission in the highlands of western Kenya. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:113 Available from: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-113 21682919 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

7 Bayoh MN, Mathias DK, Odiere MR, Mutuku FM, Kamau L, Gimnig JE, et al Anopheles gambiae: historical population decline associated with regional distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets in western Nyanza Province, Kenya. Malar J. 2010;9:62 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-62 20187956 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

8 Kweka EJ, Nkya WMM, Mahande AM, Assenga C, Mosha FW, Lyatuu EE, et al Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania. Malar J. 2008;7:59 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-59 18423018 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

9 Alonso P, Lindsay S, Armstrong J, de Francisco A, Shenton F, Greenwood B, et al The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. The Lancet. 1991;337(8756):1499–1502. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014067369193194E 10.1016/0140-6736(91)93194-E [DOI]

10 Bhattarai A, Ali AS, Kachur SP, Martensson A, Abbas AK, Khatib R, et al Impact of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy and Insecticide-Treated Nets on Malaria Burden in Zanzibar. PLoS Medicine. 2007;4(11):e309 Available from: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040309 17988171 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

11 Mutuku FM, King CH, Mungai P, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Muchiri EM, et al Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission indices on the south coast of Kenya. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):356 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-356 22165904 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

12 Hawley WA, Phillips-Howard PA, Kuile FOt, Terlouw DJ, Vulule JM, Ombok M, et al Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003;68(4):121–127. 12749495 [PubMed]

13 Russell TL, Lwetoijera DW, Maliti D, Chipwaza B, Kihonda J, Charlwood JD, et al Impact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated nets. Malaria Journal. 2010;9(1):187 Available from: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-187 20579399 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

14 Lindsay S, Adiamah J, Armstrong J. The effect of permethrin-impregnated bednets on house entry by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1992;82(01):49–55. Available from: http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=2621828 10.1017/S0007485300051488 [DOI]

15 Moore SJ, Hill N, Ruiz C, Cameron MM. Field evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellents and fumigants against the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2007;44(4):624–630. 10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[624:FEOTUP]2.0.CO;2 17695017 [PubMed] [DOI]

59 references, page 1 of 4
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publication . Article . 2015

An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission

Philip L. G. Birget; Jacob C. Koella;