A questionnaire was used to identify fear stimuli and reactions associated with dentistry. The sight of the anesthetic needle and the sight, sound, and sensation of the d rill were rated the most fear-eliciting stimuli. Females rated themselves more fearful than males did and high school students reported being more fearful than college or junior high school students. Expectations of trauma from dentistry, much previous painful dental work, and perceived ill treatment by dentists were the major perceived sources of the reported fear reactions. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.