publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019

Less Is Better. Avoiding Redundant Measurements in Studies on Wild Birds in Accordance to the Principles of the 3Rs.

Adriaan de Jong;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jun 2019 Journal: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, volume 6 (eissn: 2297-1769, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Abstract
The principles of the 3Rs apply to animal use in research regardless where the research is conducted. In wildlife research, particularly research on wild birds, 3R implementation lags behind research using laboratory, farm or pet animals. Raised 3R awareness and more field-adapted techniques and protocols are expected to improve the situation. Unpredictable access to animals entices the wildlife researcher to make the most of each caught animal, leading to potential over-use and violation of the 3Rs. In this study I statistically screened an existing set of bean goose biometric data for the existence of redundant measurement data. The results show that the disti...
Subjects
free text keywords: Veterinary Science, Original Research, principle of the 3Rs, redundant measurements, anser fabalis, R script, welfare, bird studies, Veterinary medicine, SF600-1100
49 references, page 1 of 4

1.Rollin BE. The regulation of animal research and the emergence of animal ethics: a conceptual history. Theor Med Bioeth. (2006) 27:285–304. 10.1007/s11017-006-9007-8 16937023 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2.EU Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific Purposes. (2010). Available online at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:276:0033:0079:EN:PDF (accessed February 08, 2018).

3.Jordbruksverket Föreskrifter och allmänna råd om försöksdjur. SJVFS 2017:40. Jönköping: Jordbruksverket (2017).

4.Russell WMS Burch RL The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. London: Methuen (1959).

5.Forni M. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science. Vet Res Comm. (2007) 31:43–7. 10.1007/s11259-007-0096-2 17682845 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

6.Fenwick N Danielson P Griffin G Survey of Canadian animal-based researcher's views on the three Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. PLoS ONE. (2011) 6:e22478 10.1371/journal.pone.0022478 21857928 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

7.Törnqvist E Annas A Granath B Jalkesten E Cotgreave IÖberg M. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing. PLoS ONE. (2014) 9:e101638. 10.1371/journal.pone.0101638 25054864 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

8.Blattner CE 3R for farmed animals – a legal argument for consistency. Global J Ani Law. (2014). p. 26. Retrieved from: https://ojs.abo.fi/ojs/index.php/gjal/article/view/1303 [OpenAIRE]

9.Lundmark F Berg C Röcklinsberg H Regelverk för djurskydd—vad vill man uppnå?Sv Veterinärtidn. (2014) 66:11–7. 10.1007/s10806-014-9512-0 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

10.LindsjöJ FahlmanÅTörnqvist E. Animal welfare from mouse to moose—implementing the principles of the 3Rs in wildlife research. J Wildl Dis. (2016) 52:65–77. 10.7589/52.2S.S65 26845301 [PubMed] [DOI]

11.Ainley MG The contribution of the amateur to North American ornithology: a historical perspective. Living Bird. (1979) 18:161–77.

12.Mayfield HF The amateur in ornithology. Auk. (1979) 96:168–71. [OpenAIRE]

13.Mayfield HF The amateur: finding a niche in ornithology. Nebra Bird Rev. (1991) 416:39–41.

14.Fox AD Madsen J Behavioural and distributional effects of hunting disturbance on waterbirds in Europe: implications for refuge design. J Appl Ecol. (1997) 34:1–13. 10.2307/2404842 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

15.Jordbruksverket Användning av försöksdjur i Sverige Under 2016. Rapport 2018-03-07. Jönköping: Jordbruksverket (2018).

49 references, page 1 of 4
Abstract
The principles of the 3Rs apply to animal use in research regardless where the research is conducted. In wildlife research, particularly research on wild birds, 3R implementation lags behind research using laboratory, farm or pet animals. Raised 3R awareness and more field-adapted techniques and protocols are expected to improve the situation. Unpredictable access to animals entices the wildlife researcher to make the most of each caught animal, leading to potential over-use and violation of the 3Rs. In this study I statistically screened an existing set of bean goose biometric data for the existence of redundant measurement data. The results show that the disti...
Subjects
free text keywords: Veterinary Science, Original Research, principle of the 3Rs, redundant measurements, anser fabalis, R script, welfare, bird studies, Veterinary medicine, SF600-1100
49 references, page 1 of 4

1.Rollin BE. The regulation of animal research and the emergence of animal ethics: a conceptual history. Theor Med Bioeth. (2006) 27:285–304. 10.1007/s11017-006-9007-8 16937023 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2.EU Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific Purposes. (2010). Available online at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:276:0033:0079:EN:PDF (accessed February 08, 2018).

3.Jordbruksverket Föreskrifter och allmänna råd om försöksdjur. SJVFS 2017:40. Jönköping: Jordbruksverket (2017).

4.Russell WMS Burch RL The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. London: Methuen (1959).

5.Forni M. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science. Vet Res Comm. (2007) 31:43–7. 10.1007/s11259-007-0096-2 17682845 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

6.Fenwick N Danielson P Griffin G Survey of Canadian animal-based researcher's views on the three Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. PLoS ONE. (2011) 6:e22478 10.1371/journal.pone.0022478 21857928 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

7.Törnqvist E Annas A Granath B Jalkesten E Cotgreave IÖberg M. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing. PLoS ONE. (2014) 9:e101638. 10.1371/journal.pone.0101638 25054864 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

8.Blattner CE 3R for farmed animals – a legal argument for consistency. Global J Ani Law. (2014). p. 26. Retrieved from: https://ojs.abo.fi/ojs/index.php/gjal/article/view/1303 [OpenAIRE]

9.Lundmark F Berg C Röcklinsberg H Regelverk för djurskydd—vad vill man uppnå?Sv Veterinärtidn. (2014) 66:11–7. 10.1007/s10806-014-9512-0 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

10.LindsjöJ FahlmanÅTörnqvist E. Animal welfare from mouse to moose—implementing the principles of the 3Rs in wildlife research. J Wildl Dis. (2016) 52:65–77. 10.7589/52.2S.S65 26845301 [PubMed] [DOI]

11.Ainley MG The contribution of the amateur to North American ornithology: a historical perspective. Living Bird. (1979) 18:161–77.

12.Mayfield HF The amateur in ornithology. Auk. (1979) 96:168–71. [OpenAIRE]

13.Mayfield HF The amateur: finding a niche in ornithology. Nebra Bird Rev. (1991) 416:39–41.

14.Fox AD Madsen J Behavioural and distributional effects of hunting disturbance on waterbirds in Europe: implications for refuge design. J Appl Ecol. (1997) 34:1–13. 10.2307/2404842 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

15.Jordbruksverket Användning av försöksdjur i Sverige Under 2016. Rapport 2018-03-07. Jönköping: Jordbruksverket (2018).

49 references, page 1 of 4
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