publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 1997

Is Quantum Bit Commitment Really Possible

Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, H. F.;
Open Access
  • Published: 28 Apr 1997
  • Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
Abstract
We show that all proposed quantum bit commitment schemes are insecure because the sender, Alice, can almost always cheat successfully by using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type of attack and delaying her measurement until she opens her commitment.
Subjects
free text keywords: Quantum Physics, Computer Science - Cryptography and Security
24 references, page 1 of 2

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[4] For reviews on the subject, see for example, G. P. Collins, Physics Today 45, No. 11, 23 (1992); C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and A. K. Ekert, Sci. Am. 267, 50 (1992).

[5] For a review, see G. Brassard and C. Cr´epeau, SIGACT News 27, No. 3, 13 (1996).

[6] Various quantum bit commitment schemes [2,7-9] have been proposed and at least one of them, the so-called BCJL scheme, is even claimed to be provably unbreakable [8]. Quantum bit commitment is an important protocol from which one can construct quantum coin tossing [2,7-9], quantum oblivious mutual identification [10] and quantum oblivious transfer [11-16]. Kilian [17] has shown that, in classical cryptography, oblivious transfer forms the basis of many other protocols including two-party secure computations [17]. This chain of arguments seems to suggest that quantum bit commitment alone is sufficient for implementing two-party secure computations, thus solving a long standing problem in cryptography.

[7] G. Brassard and C. Cr´epeau, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of Crypto '90, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 537, (Springer-Verlag, 1991) p. 49.

[8] G. Brassard, C. Cr´epeau, R. Jozsa and D. Langlois, in Proceedings of the 34th annual IEEE Symposium on the Foundation of Computer Science, (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 1993) p. 362.

[9] M. Ardehali, “A perfectly secure quantum bit commitment protocol,” Los Alamos preprint archive quantph/9505019.

[10] C. Cr´epeau and L. Salvail, in Advances in CryptologyProceedings of Eurocrypt '95, (Springer-Verlag, 1995) p. 133.

[11] C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Cr´epeau, and M.-H. Skubiszewska, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of Crypto '91, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 576 (Springer-Verlag, 1992) p. 351.

[12] C. Cr´epeau, Journal of Mod. Optics 41, 2445 (1994).

[13] D. Mayers and L. Salvail, preprint distributed at Workshop on Quantum Computing and Communication, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1994 (unpublished).

[14] D. Mayers, in Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of Crypto '95, Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences, Vol. 963 (Springer-Verlag, 1995) p. 124.

[15] M. Ardehali, “A simple quantum oblivious transfer protocol,” Los Alamos preprint archive quant-ph/9512026.

24 references, page 1 of 2
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