publication . Article . Other literature type . 2012

Malassezia Fungi Are Specialized to Live on Skin and Associated with Dandruff, Eczema, and Other Skin Diseases

Joseph Heitman; Charles Winston Saunders; Annika Scheynius;
Open Access English
  • Published: 21 Jun 2012 Journal: PLoS Pathogens, volume 8, issue 6 (issn: 1553-7366, eissn: 1553-7374, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Public Library of Science
Abstract
Malassezia is a monophyletic genus of fungi found on the skin of 7 billion humans and associated with a variety of conditions, including dandruff, atopic eczema (AE)/dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and folliculitis ([1], [2]; Figure 1). In immunocompromised hosts Malassezia can also cause systemic infections. There are 14 currently recognized species of Malassezia, eight of which have been associated with humans, four of these commonly [3]. Malassezia spp. are Basidiomycetous fungi, as are most species of fungi readily seen on a walk through the forest. Among the Basidiomycota, only Malassezia and Cryptococcus are frequent human pathoge...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: integumentary system
free text keywords: Pearls, Biology, Microbiology, Immunologic diseases. Allergy, RC581-607, Biology (General), QH301-705.5, Dandruff, medicine.symptom, medicine, Fungus, biology.organism_classification, Cryptococcus, Malassezia pachydermatis, Seborrheic dermatitis, medicine.disease, Fastidious organism, Malassezia, Fungal genetics
37 references, page 1 of 3

Ashbee, HR, Scheynius, A, Ashbee, HR, Bignell, EM. Malassezia.. Pathogenic yeasts. The yeast handbook. 2010: 209-230

Gupta, AK, Batra, R, Bluhm, R, Boekhout, T, Dawson, TL. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species.. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004; 51: 785-798 [PubMed]

Hort, W, Mayser, P. Malassezia virulence determinants.. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011; 24: 100-105 [PubMed]

Xu, J, Saunders, CW, Hu, P, Grant, RA, Boekhout, T. Dandruff-associated Malassezia genomes reveal convergent and divergent virulence traits shared with plant and human fungal pathogens.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104: 18730-18735 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Chen, T-A, Hill, PB. The biology of Malassezia organisms and their ability to induce immune responses and skin disease.. Vet Dermatol. 2005; 16: 4-26 [PubMed]

Chang, TL, Rovito, SM, Wake, DB, Vredenburg, VT. Coincident mass extirpation of neotropical amphibians with the emergence of the infectious fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108: 9502-9507 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Rosenblum, EB, Voyles, J, Poorten, TJ, Stajich, JE. The deadly chytrid fungus: a story of an emerging pathogen.. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6: e1000550 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Gargas, A, Trest, MT, Christensen, M, Volk, TJ, Blehert, DS. Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome.. Mycotaxon. 2009; 108: 147-154

Burmester, A, Shelest, E, Glöckner, G, Heddergott, C, Schindler, S. Comparative and functional genomics provide insights into the pathogenicity of dermatophytic fungi.. Genome Biol. 2011; 12: R7 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Joneson, S, Stajich, JE, Shiu, S-H, Rosenblum, EB. Genomic transition to pathogenicity in chytrid fungi.. PLoS Pathog. 2011; 7: e1002338 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Feldbrügge, M, Kämper, J, Steinberg, G, Kahmann, R. Regulation of mating and pathogenic development in Ustilago maydis.. Current Opin Microbiol. 2004; 7: 666-672 [OpenAIRE]

Lachke, SA, Lockhart, SR, Daniels, KJ, Soll, DR. Skin facilitates Candida albicans mating.. Infect Immun. 2003; 71: 4970-4976 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Lee, N, Bakkeren, G, Wong, K, Sherwood, JE, Kronstad, JW. The mating-type and pathogenicity locus of the fungus Ustilago hordei spans a 500-kb region.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999; 96: 15026-15031 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Bakkeren, G, Kämper, J, Schirawski, J. Sex in smut fungi: structure, function and evolution of mating type complexes.. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008; 45: S15-S21 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Heitman, J. Evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogens via covert sexual reproduction.. Cell Host Microbe. 2010; 8: 86-99 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

37 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
Malassezia is a monophyletic genus of fungi found on the skin of 7 billion humans and associated with a variety of conditions, including dandruff, atopic eczema (AE)/dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and folliculitis ([1], [2]; Figure 1). In immunocompromised hosts Malassezia can also cause systemic infections. There are 14 currently recognized species of Malassezia, eight of which have been associated with humans, four of these commonly [3]. Malassezia spp. are Basidiomycetous fungi, as are most species of fungi readily seen on a walk through the forest. Among the Basidiomycota, only Malassezia and Cryptococcus are frequent human pathoge...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: integumentary system
free text keywords: Pearls, Biology, Microbiology, Immunologic diseases. Allergy, RC581-607, Biology (General), QH301-705.5, Dandruff, medicine.symptom, medicine, Fungus, biology.organism_classification, Cryptococcus, Malassezia pachydermatis, Seborrheic dermatitis, medicine.disease, Fastidious organism, Malassezia, Fungal genetics
37 references, page 1 of 3

Ashbee, HR, Scheynius, A, Ashbee, HR, Bignell, EM. Malassezia.. Pathogenic yeasts. The yeast handbook. 2010: 209-230

Gupta, AK, Batra, R, Bluhm, R, Boekhout, T, Dawson, TL. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species.. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004; 51: 785-798 [PubMed]

Hort, W, Mayser, P. Malassezia virulence determinants.. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011; 24: 100-105 [PubMed]

Xu, J, Saunders, CW, Hu, P, Grant, RA, Boekhout, T. Dandruff-associated Malassezia genomes reveal convergent and divergent virulence traits shared with plant and human fungal pathogens.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104: 18730-18735 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Chen, T-A, Hill, PB. The biology of Malassezia organisms and their ability to induce immune responses and skin disease.. Vet Dermatol. 2005; 16: 4-26 [PubMed]

Chang, TL, Rovito, SM, Wake, DB, Vredenburg, VT. Coincident mass extirpation of neotropical amphibians with the emergence of the infectious fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108: 9502-9507 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Rosenblum, EB, Voyles, J, Poorten, TJ, Stajich, JE. The deadly chytrid fungus: a story of an emerging pathogen.. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6: e1000550 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Gargas, A, Trest, MT, Christensen, M, Volk, TJ, Blehert, DS. Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome.. Mycotaxon. 2009; 108: 147-154

Burmester, A, Shelest, E, Glöckner, G, Heddergott, C, Schindler, S. Comparative and functional genomics provide insights into the pathogenicity of dermatophytic fungi.. Genome Biol. 2011; 12: R7 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Joneson, S, Stajich, JE, Shiu, S-H, Rosenblum, EB. Genomic transition to pathogenicity in chytrid fungi.. PLoS Pathog. 2011; 7: e1002338 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Feldbrügge, M, Kämper, J, Steinberg, G, Kahmann, R. Regulation of mating and pathogenic development in Ustilago maydis.. Current Opin Microbiol. 2004; 7: 666-672 [OpenAIRE]

Lachke, SA, Lockhart, SR, Daniels, KJ, Soll, DR. Skin facilitates Candida albicans mating.. Infect Immun. 2003; 71: 4970-4976 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Lee, N, Bakkeren, G, Wong, K, Sherwood, JE, Kronstad, JW. The mating-type and pathogenicity locus of the fungus Ustilago hordei spans a 500-kb region.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999; 96: 15026-15031 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Bakkeren, G, Kämper, J, Schirawski, J. Sex in smut fungi: structure, function and evolution of mating type complexes.. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008; 45: S15-S21 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Heitman, J. Evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogens via covert sexual reproduction.. Cell Host Microbe. 2010; 8: 86-99 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

37 references, page 1 of 3
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