publication . Article . Other literature type . 2016

A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers

Howard Feldman;
Open Access
  • Published: 02 Aug 2016 Journal: Neurology, volume 87, pages 539-547 (issn: 0028-3878, eissn: 1526-632X, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
Abstract
© 2016 American Academy of Neurology. Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the "A/T/N" system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. "A" refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); "T," the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); an...
Subjects
free text keywords: 26, 36, 118, 120, 122, Views & Reviews
Funded by
NIH| Disentangling the contribution of tau to aging and AD
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG046396-05
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Exploring the Role of the Brain Epigenome: Cognitive Decline and Life Experiences
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG036042-05
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Stroke and Cognitive Impairment in Aging Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG037551-03
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 1U01AG024904-01
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Evolution of memory-related fMRI activation over the course of MCI and AD
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG027435-05
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
60 references, page 1 of 4

1.Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al.Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria. Lancet Neurol 2014;13:614–629.24849862 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

2.Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al.Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:734–746.17616482 [PubMed]

3.Sperling RA, Aisen PS, Beckett LA, et al.Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:280–292.21514248 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

4.Albert MS, DeKosky ST, Dickson D, et al.The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association Workgroup. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:270–279.21514249 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

5.McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, et al.The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association Workgroup. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:263–269.21514250 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

6.Jack CR Jr, Albert MS, Knopman DS, et al.Introduction to the recommendations from the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:257–262.21514247 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

7.Hampel H, Frank R, Broich K, et al.Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: academic, industry and regulatory perspectives. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2010;9:560–574.20592748 [PubMed]

8.Villemagne VL, Fodero-Tavoletti MT, Masters CL, Rowe CC Tau imaging: early progress and future directions. Lancet Neurol 2015;14:114–124.25496902 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

9.Marquie M, Normandin MD, Vanderburg CR, et al.Validating novel tau positron emission tomography tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue. Ann Neurol 2015;78:787–800.26344059 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

10.Johnson KA, Shultz A, Betensky RA, et al.Tau positron emission tomographic imaging in aging and early Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 2016;79:110–119.26505746 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

11.Scholl M, Lockhart SN, Schonhaut DR, et al.PET Imaging of tau deposition in the aging human brain. Neuron 2016;89:971–982.26938442 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

12.Braak H, Thal DR, Ghebremedhin E, Del Tredici K Stages of the pathologic process in Alzheimer disease: age categories from 1 to 100 years. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2011;70:960–969.22002422 [PubMed]

13.Duyckaerts C, Braak H, Brion JP, et al.PART is part of Alzheimer disease. Acta Neuropathol 2015;129:749–756.25628035 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

14.Duyckaerts C Tau pathology in children and young adults: can you still be unconditionally baptist?. Acta Neuropathol 2011;121:145–147.21225273 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

15.Jack CR Jr, Holtzman DM Biomarker modeling of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron 2013;80:1347–1358.24360540 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

60 references, page 1 of 4
Abstract
© 2016 American Academy of Neurology. Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for these biomarkers would be useful. We propose the "A/T/N" system in which 7 major AD biomarkers are divided into 3 binary categories based on the nature of the pathophysiology that each measures. "A" refers to the value of a β-amyloid biomarker (amyloid PET or CSF Aβ42); "T," the value of a tau biomarker (CSF phospho tau, or tau PET); an...
Subjects
free text keywords: 26, 36, 118, 120, 122, Views & Reviews
Funded by
NIH| Disentangling the contribution of tau to aging and AD
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG046396-05
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Exploring the Role of the Brain Epigenome: Cognitive Decline and Life Experiences
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG036042-05
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Stroke and Cognitive Impairment in Aging Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG037551-03
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 1U01AG024904-01
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| Evolution of memory-related fMRI activation over the course of MCI and AD
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG027435-05
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
60 references, page 1 of 4

1.Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al.Advancing research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease: the IWG-2 criteria. Lancet Neurol 2014;13:614–629.24849862 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

2.Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C, et al.Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:734–746.17616482 [PubMed]

3.Sperling RA, Aisen PS, Beckett LA, et al.Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:280–292.21514248 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

4.Albert MS, DeKosky ST, Dickson D, et al.The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association Workgroup. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:270–279.21514249 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

5.McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, et al.The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association Workgroup. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:263–269.21514250 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

6.Jack CR Jr, Albert MS, Knopman DS, et al.Introduction to the recommendations from the National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011;7:257–262.21514247 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

7.Hampel H, Frank R, Broich K, et al.Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: academic, industry and regulatory perspectives. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2010;9:560–574.20592748 [PubMed]

8.Villemagne VL, Fodero-Tavoletti MT, Masters CL, Rowe CC Tau imaging: early progress and future directions. Lancet Neurol 2015;14:114–124.25496902 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

9.Marquie M, Normandin MD, Vanderburg CR, et al.Validating novel tau positron emission tomography tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue. Ann Neurol 2015;78:787–800.26344059 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

10.Johnson KA, Shultz A, Betensky RA, et al.Tau positron emission tomographic imaging in aging and early Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 2016;79:110–119.26505746 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

11.Scholl M, Lockhart SN, Schonhaut DR, et al.PET Imaging of tau deposition in the aging human brain. Neuron 2016;89:971–982.26938442 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

12.Braak H, Thal DR, Ghebremedhin E, Del Tredici K Stages of the pathologic process in Alzheimer disease: age categories from 1 to 100 years. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2011;70:960–969.22002422 [PubMed]

13.Duyckaerts C, Braak H, Brion JP, et al.PART is part of Alzheimer disease. Acta Neuropathol 2015;129:749–756.25628035 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

14.Duyckaerts C Tau pathology in children and young adults: can you still be unconditionally baptist?. Acta Neuropathol 2011;121:145–147.21225273 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

15.Jack CR Jr, Holtzman DM Biomarker modeling of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron 2013;80:1347–1358.24360540 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

60 references, page 1 of 4
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