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Il diritto d'autore e la parodia dietro la maschera di Zorro. Duellando (in Cassazione) tra esclusiva e libertà sul giusto (e instabile) equilibrio tra diritti fondamentali

Authors: Caso, Roberto;

Il diritto d'autore e la parodia dietro la maschera di Zorro. Duellando (in Cassazione) tra esclusiva e libertà sul giusto (e instabile) equilibrio tra diritti fondamentali

Abstract

La controversia oggetto di Cass. Sez. I civile ord. 30 dicembre 2022 n. 38165 riguarda una campagna pubblicitaria di un’impresa produttrice di acque minerali. Lo spot di un’acqua minerale vede come protagonista una versione umoristica del personaggio di Zorro creato da Johnston McCulley nel 1919, ma a sua volta presumibilmente ispirato a precedenti figure letterarie (come Robin Hood e la Primula Rossa) nonché, secondo alcune ipotesi, a Joaquin Murrieta, un fuorilegge californiano vissuto nell’800. L’impresa titolare del copyright sul personaggio Zorro fa causa all’impresa produttrice di acqua minerale per plagio-contraffazione. Il caso offre alla Cassazione l’occasione per riformulare il principio giuridico di tendenziale prevalenza della libertà di parodia sul diritto d’autore nei termini utilizzati dalla Corte di giustizia dell’Unione Europea. La formula (magica) è quella del «giusto equilibrio tra diritti fondamentali». Nel lessico della Carta di Nizza si tratta del bilanciamento tra proprietà intellettuale (art. 17.2) e libertà di espressione e informazione (art. 11).

Nota a Cass. Sez. I civile ord. 30 dicembre 2022 n. 38165, sottoposta per la pubblicazione a Il Foro italiano. Versione 1.0, 10 marzo 2023. Preprint (bozza non sottoposta alla revisione paritaria).

Keywords

Copyright, Parody, Italian copyright law, Intellectual Property

17 Trib. Napoli, ud. 27 maggio 1908, in Foro it., Rep. 1909, voce Diritti d'autore, n. 18, e in Giur it., 1909, 1, 370, 374.

La celebre controversia è stata riportata recentemente all'attenzione del grande pubblico dal bel film di Mario Martone sulla vita di Eduardo Scarpetta intitolato «Qui rido io». Per una rilettura del caso v. L. MOSCATI, Sulla parodia e la causa D'Annunzio-Scarpetta, in Historia et jus, 2021, <http://www.historiaetius.eu>.

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