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A Review and Refinement of Surprise Adequacy

Authors: Weiss, Michael; Chakraborty, Rwiddhi; Tonella, Paolo;

A Review and Refinement of Surprise Adequacy

Abstract

Surprise Adequacy (SA) is one of the emerging and most promising adequacy criteria for Deep Learning (DL) testing. As an adequacy criterion, it has been used to assess the strength of DL test suites. In addition, it has also been used to find inputs to a Deep Neural Network (DNN) which were not sufficiently represented in the training data, or to select samples for DNN retraining. However, computation of the SA metric for a test suite can be prohibitively expensive, as it involves a quadratic number of distance calculations. Hence, we developed and released a performance-optimized, but functionally equivalent, implementation of SA, reducing the evaluation time by up to 97\%. We also propose refined variants of the SA omputation algorithm, aiming to further increase the evaluation speed. We then performed an empirical study on MNIST, focused on the out-of-distribution detection capabilities of SA, which allowed us to reproduce parts of the results presented when SA was first released. The experiments show that our refined variants are substantially faster than plain SA, while producing comparable outcomes. Our experimental results exposed also an overlooked issue of SA: it can be highly sensitive to the non-determinism associated with the DNN training procedure.

Accepted at DeepTest 2021 (ICSE Workshop)

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Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Artificial neural network Computer science business.industry Deep learning Computation Machine learning computer.software_genre Quadratic equation Metric (mathematics) Test suite Sensitivity (control systems) Artificial intelligence business computer MNIST database

Keywords

FOS: Computer and information sciences, Computer Science - Machine Learning, Machine Learning (cs.LG), Software Engineering (cs.SE), Computer Science - Software Engineering

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    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    2
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
2
Average
Average
Average
Funded by
EC| PRECRIME
Project
PRECRIME
Self-assessment Oracles for Anticipatory Testing
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 787703
  • Funding stream: H2020 | ERC | ERC-ADG
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