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Stellar Rotation in the Gaia Era: Revised Open Clusters’ Sequences

Authors: Godoy-Rivera, Diego; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Rebull, Luisa M.;

Stellar Rotation in the Gaia Era: Revised Open Clusters’ Sequences

Abstract

The period versus mass diagrams (i.e., rotational sequences) of open clusters provide crucial constraints for angular momentum evolution studies. However, their memberships are often heavily contaminated by field stars, which could potentially bias the interpretations. In this paper, we use data from Gaia DR2 to re-assess the memberships of seven open clusters with ground- and space-based rotational data, and present an updated view of stellar rotation as a function of mass and age. We use the Gaia astrometry to identify the cluster members in phase-space, and the photometry to derive revised ages and place the stars on a consistent mass scale. Applying our membership analysis to the rotational sequences reveals that: 1) the contamination in clusters observed from the ground can reach up to $\sim 35\%$; 2) the overall fraction of rotational outliers decreases substantially when the field contaminants are removed, but some outliers persist; 3) there is a sharp upper edge in the rotation periods at young ages; 4) at young ages, stars in the 1.0-0.6 Msun range inhabit a global maximum of rotation periods, potentially providing an optimal window for habitable planets. Additionally, we see clear evidence for a strongly mass-dependent spin-down process. In the regime where rapid rotators are leaving the saturated domain, the rotational distributions broaden (in contradiction with popular models), which we interpret as evidence that the torque must be lower for rapid rotators than for intermediate ones. The cleaned rotational sequences from ground-based observations can be as constraining as those obtained from space.

Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJS. 26 pages of main text, 14 figures, and 9 pages of appendices. Appendix machine-readable tables are available as ancillary files (they are displaced by one letter with respect to the previous version but are otherwise identical)

Country
United States
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Physics Angular momentum Planetary habitability Stellar rotation Astrophysics Astrometry Rotation Photometry (astronomy) Stars Open cluster

Keywords

Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP), Cool Stars on the main sequence, Stellar systems, clusters, and associations, FOS: Physical sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Science, Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR), Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics

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    38
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 1%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 1%
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download
citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
views
OpenAIRE UsageCountsViews provided by UsageCounts
downloads
OpenAIRE UsageCountsDownloads provided by UsageCounts
38
Top 1%
Average
Top 1%
107
121
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