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Uloga pejzaža i ribolova u naseljavanju đerdapske klisure tokom 13,000 – 5500. pre n. e.

Authors: Živaljević, Ivana;

Uloga pejzaža i ribolova u naseljavanju đerdapske klisure tokom 13,000 – 5500. pre n. e.

Abstract

Specifičan pejzaž Đerdapa nastao je brzim i moćnim tokom Dunava, koji je probijajući se kroz južne obronke Karpatsko-balkanskih planina usekao četiri klisure strmih strana, međusobno odvojene kotlinskim proširenjima. Protičući kroz različite oblike reljefa, reku su karakterisale razlike u izgledu rečnog korita, promene u vodenom režimu, brzini toka, rečnog pada i akumulaciji, kao i mnoštvo meandara, katarakti i virova. Ovakve osobenosti pejzaža bile su posebno pogodne za ribolov na slatkovodne ali i migratorne vrste riba, te je đerdapski prostor počev od srednjeg veka predstavljao jedno od najunosnijih ribolovišta u širem regionu. Dobri uslovi za ribolov, međutim, predstavljali su jedan od ključnih razloga za nastanjivanje ljudskih zajednica na ovom području i tokom praistorije, tačnije tokom epipaleolita, mezolita i ranog neolita (13,00-5500. pre n. e.). Iako riba nije predstavljala glavni izvor hrane u ranim fazama đerdapske sekvence, određene pećine i potkapine na levoj, i rečne terase na desnoj dunavskoj obali postaju mesta na koje su se ljudske zajednice iznova vraćale, sahranjivale svoje mrtve i sporadično se bavile ribolovačkim aktivnostima. Počev od kasnog mezolita (7400-6300/6200. pre n. e.) dolazi do produženog boravka ljudi na rečnim terasama, a značajne količine otkrivenih ribljih ostataka i povišene vrednosti izotopa u kolagenu iz ljudskih kostiju ukazuju da su sedentizam i intenzivniji ribolov predstavljali dva usko povezana fenomena. Upućenost na reku i ribolov nastavlja se i u narednoj, transformacionoj mezolitsko-neolitskoj fazi (6300/6200-6000/5900. pre n. e.), vremenu koje koincidira sa nastankom kompleksnih naselja na Lepenskom Viru i Padini. Ovi podaci ukazuju da je ribolov imao važnu (iako varirajuću) ulogu tokom čitave đerdapske sekvence, i to specifičan način ribolova na virovima. Rad se osvrće na ulogu pejzaža u izboru lokacija za nastanjivanje i u stvaranju specifičnih ribolovačkih rešenja, na izbor i značaj određenih ribljih vrsta, kao i na različite oblike ribolova u zavisnosti od lokacije i u dijahronijskoj perspektivi.

This research was not related to a project.

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popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
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