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Retrospectiva de los movimientos migratorios en Ecuador en los últimos 25 años

Authors: Diosgrafo Tulio Chamba Villavicencio; Alex Fidel Valdivieso Mora; Johana Cristina Sarmiento Vélez; Claudia Sofía Medina León; Mónica Maldonado Espinosa;

Retrospectiva de los movimientos migratorios en Ecuador en los últimos 25 años

Abstract

{"references": ["\u00c1lvarez, S. (2012, agosto). Estado del Arte de los Estudios Migratorios Ecuatorianos (Tesis de grado). Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales FLACSO-Sede Ecuador. https://bit.ly/3hDwQsB", "Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas. (1990, 18 de diciembre). Convenci\u00f3n Internacional sobre la protecci\u00f3n de los derechos de todos los trabajadores migratorios y de sus familiares [Resoluci\u00f3n 45/158]. https://bit.ly/3BOVdu7", "Asamblea Nacional Constituyente. (2008). Constituci\u00f3n\u00a0de la Rep\u00fablica del\u00a0Ecuador 2008 [Decreto Legislativo 0]. Registro Oficial 449 de 20 de octubre de\u00a02008. https://bit.ly/2FFdsH9", "Asamblea Nacional del Ecuador. (2017). Ley Org\u00e1nica de Movilidad Humana. Registro Oficial Suplemento 938 del 6 de febrero de 2017. https://bit.ly/2Uo4QY6", "Banco Central del Ecuador. (2022). Remesas-Base de datos \u2013 REMESAS IVT 2021. https://bit.ly/3PSDcRl", "Bonilla-Mej\u00eda, L. (2017). Choques externos y remesas internacionales en las regiones de Colombia. Ensayos Sobre Pol\u00edtica Econ\u00f3mica, 35(84), 189\u2013202. https://bit.ly/3v6GlDw", "C\u00e1rdenas, M., Medina, C., & Trejos, A. (2010). Measuring Economic and Social Impacts of Migration in Colombia: New evidence.\u00a0Borradores de Econom\u00eda,\u00a0601, 1-54. https://bit.ly/3PMilir", "Herrera, G., Moncayo, M., & Escobar, A. (2017). Perfil Migratorio del Ecuador, 2011. Organizaci\u00f3n Internacional para las Migraciones. https://bit.ly/3v71fCw", "Instituto Nacional de Estad\u00edsticas y Censos. (2021). Registro Estad\u00edstico de Entradas y Salidas. Recuperado el 14 de abril de 2022 de https://bit.ly/3FMbi4W", "Luque, A., Carretero, P., & Morales, P. (2019,13 de mayo). El desplazamiento humanitario en Ecuador y los procesos migratorios en su zona fronteriza: Vulneraci\u00f3n o derecho. Revista Espacios, 40(16), 3-13. https://bit.ly/3PHTyw9", "Moncayo, M. (2011). El Plan \"Bienvenidos a Casa\": Estudio sobre la experiencia del fondo \"El Cucayo\". Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales FLACSO - Sede Ecuador. Serie Avances de Investigaci\u00f3n. https://bit.ly/3PPal0q", "Padr\u00f3n, A. (2015). An\u00e1lisis Comparativo entre el Plan Bienvenidos a Casa y el Plan de Retorno Voluntario y su impacto en las relaciones internacionales entre Ecuador y Espa\u00f1a (Tesis de grado). Universidad del Azuay. https://bit.ly/3WixgDI", "Ram\u00edrez, J. (2013). Pol\u00edtica migratoria en el estado ecuatoriano, rupturas, tensiones, continuidad y desaf\u00edos. Editorial IAEN. https://bit.ly/3va3qFj", "SENAMI. (2007). Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano para las Migraciones 2007-2010. https://bit.ly/3FKXx6n", "Stefoni, C. (2011). Migraci\u00f3n, remesas y desarrollo. Polis Revista Latinoamericana, 30. http://journals.openedition.org/polis/2389", "Tamayo, M. (1997). El An\u00e1lisis de las Pol\u00edticas P\u00fablicas. En R. Ba\u00f1\u00f3n & E. Carrillo (Comps.), La Nueva Administraci\u00f3n P\u00fablica (pp. 281-312). Alianza Editorial. https://bit.ly/2DEH1pT"]}

Resumen El presente trabajo aborda el fenómeno de la migración de los ecuatorianos al exterior desde el año 1997 y la migración de retorno en años posteriores debido a las crisis económicas en los países de destino. El análisis se enfoca en aspectos legales, sociales y económicos, así como en las políticas públicas migratorias propuestas desde el gobierno, fundamentalmente el denominado plan de retorno “Bienvenidos a Casa” que fue la principal oferta de acogida a los migrantes que decidían retornar al país. La revisión de la normativa legal y de la literatura existente en los temas indicados, así como del análisis de los datos oficiales referentes al saldo migratorio de Ecuador y de los volúmenes de remesas enviadas por los migrantes al país, permite determinar que si bien se ha generado un marco legal favorable y unas políticas públicas atractivas para el retorno, la migración hacia el exterior ha seguido creciendo en los últimos años puesto que no se resuelven los problemas económicos internos y el volumen de remesas que envían los migrantes desde el exterior se convierte en un importante rubro para la dinamización de la economía del Ecuador. Abstract This paper addresses the phenomenon of migration of Ecuadorians abroad since 1997 and return migration in subsequent years due to economic crises in destination countries. The analysis focuses on legal, social and economic aspects, as well as on the migration public policies proposed by the government, mainly the so-called “Welcome Home” return plan, which was the main offer of reception to migrants who decided to return to the country. The review of the legal regulations and the existing literature on the indicated topics, as well as the analysis of the official data referring to the migratory balance of Ecuador and the volumes of remittances sent by migrants to the country, allows us to determine that although it has been generated a favorable legal framework and attractive public policies for return, migration abroad has continued to grow in recent years since internal economic problems are not resolved and the volume of remittances sent by migrants from abroad becomes an important item for the revitalization of the economy of Ecuador.

Un Espacio para la Ciencia, libro científico arbitrado. Una publicación de Manglar Editores.

Keywords

Derecho de migración, Migration policy, Política migratoria, Remittances, Remesas, Labour migration, Migración laboral, Migration law

Ramírez, J. (2013). Política migratoria en el estado ecuatoriano, rupturas, tensiones, continuidad y desafíos. Editorial IAEN. https://bit. ly/3va3qFj SENAMI. (2007). Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano para las Migraciones 2007-2010. https://bit.ly/3FKXx6n Stefoni, C. (2011). Migración, remesas y desarrollo. Polis Revista Latinoamericana, 30. http://journals.openedition.org/polis/2389 Tamayo, M. (1997). El Análisis de las Políticas Públicas. En R. Bañón & E. Carrillo (Comps.), La Nueva Administración Pública (pp. 281-312). Alianza Editorial. https://bit.ly/2DEH1pT

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