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Publication . Report . 2020

Environmental aspects related to the use of critical raw materials in priority sectors and value chains

Bachér, John; Pohjalainen, Elina; Yli-Rantala, Elina; Boonen, Katrien; Nelen, Dirk;
Open Access  
Published: 15 Dec 2020
Publisher: Zenodo
Country: Finland
Abstract
This ETC/WMGE report provides an analysis of environmental risks and impacts related to the critical raw materials (CRMs) in the following applications: magnets, batteries, alloys, mineral fertilizers and electronics. The report also presents an overview of CRMs and their potential substitution solutions in these applications. In addition, it examines the economic importance and future aspects related to the use of CRMs in these applications.
Funded by
EEA| ETC WMGE
Project
ETC WMGE
ETC Waste and Materials in a Green Economy
  • Funder: European Environment Agency (EEA)
  • Project Code: ETC WMGE