publication . Article . 2016

Dirty Money: A Matter of Bacterial Survival, Adherence, and Toxicity

Frank Vriesekoop; Jing Chen; Jenna Oldaker; Flavien Besnard; Reece Smith; William Leversha; Cheralee Smith-Arnold; Julie Worrall; Emily Rufray; Qipeng Yuan; ...
Open Access English
  • Published: 23 Nov 2016 Journal: Microorganisms, volume 4, issue 4 (eissn: 2076-2607, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: MDPI
In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various curr...
Medical Subject Headings: otorhinolaryngologic diseasesstomatognathic diseases
free text keywords: Article, banknotes, bacteria, substrate, coins, microcosm, microbiome, Virology, Microbiology (medical), Microbiology, Biology, Cash, media_common.quotation_subject, media_common, Ecology, Commerce, Cryptocurrency
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