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Other literature type . Conference object . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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Using the Winograd Schema Challenge as a CAPTCHA

Authors: Isaak, Nicos; Michael, Loizos;

Using the Winograd Schema Challenge as a CAPTCHA

Abstract

CAPTCHAs have established themselves as a standard technology to confidently distinguish humans from bots. Beyond the typical use for security reasons, CAPTCHAs have helped promote AI research in challenge tasks such as image classification and optical character recognition. It is, therefore, natural to consider what other challenge tasks for AI could serve a role in CAPTCHAs. The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC), a certain form of hard pronoun resolution tasks, was proposed by Levesque as such a challenge task to promote research in AI. Based on current reports in the literature, the WSC remains a challenging task for bots, and is, therefore, a candidate to serve as a form of CAPTCHA. In this work we investigate whether this a priori appropriateness of the WSC as a form of CAPTCHA can be justified in terms of its acceptability by the human users in relation to existing CAPTCHA tasks. Our empirical study involved a total of 329 students, aged between 11 and 15, and showed that the WSC is generally faster and easier to solve than, and equally entertaining with, the most typical existing CAPTCHA tasks.

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Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: CAPTCHA business.industry Computer science Artificial intelligence computer.software_genre business computer Winograd Schema Challenge Natural language processing

Keywords

CAPTCHA

28 references, page 1 of 3

[1] Evan Ackerman. Winograd Schema Challenge Results: AI Common Sense Still a Problem, for Now. Spectrum, 2016.

[2] Pascal Amsili and Olga Seminck. A Google-Proof Collection of French Winograd Schemas. In Second Workshop on Coreference Resolution beyond OntoNotes, page 24, 2017.

[3] Sandhya Tarar Anvesh Sinha. Review Paper on Di erent CAPTCHA Techniques. IJCST Vol. 7, 2016.

[4] Marios Belk, Panagiotis Germanakos, Christos Fidas, Andreas Holzinger, and George Samaras. Towards the Personalization of CAPTCHA Mechanisms Based on Individual Di erences in Cognitive Processing. In Human Factors in Computing and Informatics, pages 409{426. Springer, 2013.

[5] David Bender. Establishing a Human Baseline for the Winograd Schema Challenge. In MAICS, pages 39{45, 2015.

[6] Kevin Bock, Daven Patel, George Hughey, and Dave Levin. unCaptcha: A Low-Resource Defeat of reCaptcha's Audio Challenge. In Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Conference on O ensive Technologies, pages 7{7. USENIX Association, 2017.

[7] Ernest Davis, Leora Morgenstern, and Charles Ortiz. Human tests of materials for the Winograd Schema Challenge 2016. 2016.

[8] Jeremy Elson, John JD Douceur, Jon Howell, and Jared Saul. Asirra: A CAPTCHA that Exploits Interest-Aligned Manual Image Categorization. 2007.

[9] Christos A Fidas, Artemios G Voyiatzis, and Nikolaos M Avouris. On the necessity of user-friendly CAPTCHA. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 2623{2626. ACM, 2011.

[10] Walid Khalifa Abdullah Hasan. A Survey of Current Research on Captcha. International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey (IJCSES), 7(3):141{157, 2016.

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    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
views
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2
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