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Article . 2013
Data sources: DOAJ
INRA Productions Animales
Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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Will meat be produced in vitro in the future ?

Authors: Hocquette, Jean-François, J.-F.; Mainsant, Pascal; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Remond, Didier; Doreau, Michel, M.; Sans, Pierre; +4 Authors

Will meat be produced in vitro in the future ?

Abstract

La production de viande artificielle par culture de cellules est proposée par certains scientifiques comme une des solutions pour répondre aux grands enjeux de l’élevage : i) réduire le mal-être supposé des animaux dans les élevages modernes, voire ne pas tuer les animaux pour les manger, ii) réduire la possible dégradation de l’environnement par l’élevage et iii) réduire la faim dans le monde en augmentant le niveau des ressources protéiques alimentaires. La viande artificielle supprimerait en effet le mal-être supposé des animaux lié à l’élevage et permettrait de ne pas abattre les animaux pour les manger. L’impact environnemental de la viande artificielle est difficile à évaluer en l’absence de données sur le fonctionnement d’une usine de production. La viande artificielle présenterait toutefois un intérêt modéré pour réduire les gaz à effet de serre et la pollution par les nitrates, un intérêt limité quant à l’utilisation des énergies fossiles, voire très limité pour limiter les besoins en eau, mais elle libérerait des terres cultivables. Elle entraînerait probablement dans l’eau des résidus de molécules de synthèse. De nombreux experts estiment que les causes de la malnutrition actuelle de certaines populations sont multiples et ne sont pas directement liées à un manque de ressources alimentaires. Bien que la culture de cellules soit couramment pratiquée en laboratoire, il existe des verrous techniques importants à lever pour une production à grande échelle, tels que le coût rédhibitoire des technologies actuelles et le manque de ressemblance du produit obtenu à de la viande issue d’animaux. Sur le plan nutritionnel, la viande artificielle ne présente pas d’avantage particulier par rapport à un autre aliment élaboré à partir de l’ensemble des nutriments nécessaires à sa production. Les critères d’acceptabilité de la viande artificielle renvoient, d’une part, à des questions d’ordre moral ou éthique concernant la technologie et les inquiétudes qu’elle soulève, et d’autre part, à des considérations classiques relatives aux produits alimentaires (prix, qualité, naturalité…). Par le passé, les expériences de substitution des protéines animales par des produits analogues ont échoué en raison, notamment, de contraintes économiques, du temps nécessaire pour l’éventuelle acceptation des produits par les consommateurs et pour la délivrance des autorisations de mise sur le marché. Face aux questionnements importants concernant l’élevage, la production de viande artificielle ne présente pas aujourd’hui d’avantages majeurs par comparaison à la viande naturelle ou à d’autres alternatives possibles telles que rééquilibrer notre alimentation en diversifiant les sources de protéines végétales et animales, ou encore développer des systèmes d’élevage plus respectueux des animaux et de l’environnement.

The production of artificial meat by cell culture is suggested by some scientists as one solution to address the major challenges facing our society: (i) reducing potential discomfort of animals on modern farms or avoiding killing animals to eat them (ii) reducing potential environmental degradation by livestock and (iii) reducing world hunger by increasing protein resources. Artificial meat would indeed eliminate any animal “suffering” in farming systems and would avoid the slaughtering of animals to eat them. The environmental impact of artificial meat is difficult to evaluate due to the absence of references on production units. However, it may have a moderate interest in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and pollution by nitrates, a limited interest for decreasing fossil fuel use or a very limited interest concerning water use, but it would make more land available. It may result in the presence of organic molecule residues in water. Nevertheless, many experts believe that the causes of the current malnutrition of some human populations are diverse, and not directly related to a lack of food resources. Although cell culture can be usually performed in laboratories, there are significant major technical difficulties to move towards a large-scale production as the prohibitive cost of current technologies and the lack of similarity of the obtained product with meat from animals. From a nutritional point of view, artificial meat has no particular advantage compared to another type of food made from all nutrients necessary for its production. The criteria for acceptability of artificial meat refer, first, to moral or ethical concerns about the technology and the worries it raises, and secondly, to usual food product concerns (price, quality, naturality, etc.). In the past, attempts to substitute animal proteins with similar products have failed due to economic constraints, the time required for potential product acceptance by consumers and permission to place the products on the market by public authorities. In conclusion, given the important challenges facing livestock, production of artificial meat does not present any major advantage compared to natural meat or to other options such as balancing human food supply by more diverse sources of plant and animal proteins, or developing friendly farming systems for animals and the environment. Technical, economic and social constraints, including uncertain acceptance by consumers of artificial foods, are indeed major limitations to the development of artificial meat.

National audience

Country
France
Keywords

[SDV]Life Sciences [q-bio], Viande artificielle, SH1-691, SF1-1100, [SHS]Humanities and Social Sciences, Animal culture, Médecine vétérinaire et santé animal, [SDV.IDA]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Food engineering, Alimentation et Nutrition, Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling, [INFO]Computer Science [cs], [SPI.GPROC]Engineering Sciences [physics]/Chemical and Process Engineering, Culture de cellules, Animal Science and Zoology, Viande In vitro, Viande synthétique

35 references, page 1 of 4

1 INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France 2 Clermont Université, VetAgro Sup, UMR1213 Herbivores, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France

3 Académie de la Viande, 149 rue de Bercy, 75012 Paris, France

4 INRA, UR0370 QuaPA, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France

5 INRA, UMR1019, Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France

6 Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, UMR1019, Nutrition Humaine,

BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France

7 INP-ENV Toulouse, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex 3, France

8 INRA, UR1303 ALISS, 65 boulevard de Brandebourg, 94205 Ivry-sur-Seine, France

9 Ghent University, Department of Agricultural Economics, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium

Bhat Z.F., Bhat H., 2011a. Animal-free meat biofabrication. Am. J. Food Technol., 6, 441- 459.

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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views
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