The theoretical and practical principles of fire protection of wooden building structures are stated. Based on the performed scientific analysis it is shown that the schedule of wood from the action of high temperature determines the reliability and durability of building structures. The features of the process of weight loss during the operation of fireproof wood, a decrease in the rate of burnout depending on the properties of the protective coating are disclosed. The basic operational properties of flame retardants are experimentally determined and their suitability for use in building structures is established, technical solutions and recommendations for the practical implementation of fire protection at construction sites for the application, receipt and operation of materials are given. Designed for specialists and scientists engaged in practical and scientific activities in the field of protection of building structures.