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OpenAIRE; KITopen
Article . 2021
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Hybrid electro-optic modulator combining silicon photonic slot waveguides with high-k radio-frequency slotlines

Authors: Ummethala, Sandeep; Kemal, Juned N.; Alam, Ahmed S.; Lauermann, Matthias; Kuzmin, Artem; Kutuvantavida, Yasar; Nandam, Sree H.; +7 Authors

Hybrid electro-optic modulator combining silicon photonic slot waveguides with high-k radio-frequency slotlines

Abstract

Electro-optic (EO) modulators rely on the interaction of optical and electrical signals with second-order nonlinear media. For the optical signal, this interaction can be strongly enhanced using dielectric slot–waveguide structures that exploit a field discontinuity at the interface between a high-index waveguide core and the low-index EO cladding. In contrast to this, the electrical signal is usually applied through conductive regions in the direct vicinity of the optical waveguide. To avoid excessive optical loss, the conductivity of these regions is maintained at a moderate level, thus leading to inherent RC limitations of the modulation bandwidth. In this paper, we show that these limitations can be overcome by extending the slot–waveguide concept to the modulating radio-frequency (RF) signal. Our device combines an RF slotline that relies on B a T i O 3 as a high-k dielectric material with a conventional silicon photonic slot waveguide and a highly efficient organic EO cladding material. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate a 1 mm long Mach–Zehnder modulator that offers a 3 dB bandwidth of 76 GHz and a 6 dB bandwidth of 110 GHz along with a small π voltage of 1.3 V ( U π L = 1.3 V m m ). We further demonstrate the viability of the device in a data-transmission experiment using four-state pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM4) at line rates up to 200 Gbit/s. Our first-generation devices leave vast room for further improvement and may open an attractive route towards highly efficient silicon photonic modulators that combine sub-1 mm device lengths with sub-1 V drive voltages and modulation bandwidths of more than 100 GHz.

Country
Germany
Related Organizations
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Materials science Silicon photonics business.industry Optical communication Electro-optic modulator Cladding (fiber optics) Waveguide (optics) Slot-waveguide Modulation Optoelectronics Radio frequency business

Dewey Decimal Classification: ddc:620

Keywords

Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Engineering & allied operations

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    22
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Top 10%
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Top 10%
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
22
Top 10%
Top 10%
Top 10%
Funded by
EC| TeraSlice
Project
TeraSlice
Terahertz Analogue-to-Digital Conversion Using Photonic Chipscale Soliton Frequency Combs and Massively Parallel Spectrally Sliced Detection
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 863322
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
Validated by funder
,
EC| TeraSHAPE
Project
TeraSHAPE
Terahertz Waveform Synthesis and Analysis Using Hybrid Photonic-Electronic Circuits
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 773248
  • Funding stream: H2020 | ERC | ERC-COG
Validated by funder | sysimport:crosswalk:repository
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