publication . Article . 2021

Statistical analysis in support of maintaining a healthy traditional Siamese cat population

Arthur M.A. Pistorius; Ineke Blokker;
Open Access
  • Published: 01 Dec 2021 Journal: Genetics, Selection, Evolution, volume 53 (issn: 0999-193X, Copyright policy)
Abstract
Abstract Background For many years, breeders of companion animals have applied inbreeding or line breeding to transfer desirable genetic traits from parents to their offspring. Simultaneously, this resulted in a considerable spread of hereditary diseases and phenomena associated with inbreeding depression. Results Our cluster analysis of kinship and inbreeding coefficients suggests that the Thai or traditional Siamese cat could be considered as a subpopulation of the Siamese cat, which shares common ancestors, although they are considered as separate breeds. In addition, model-based cluster analysis could detect regional differences between Thai subpopulations. We show that by applying optimal contribution selection and simultaneously limiting the contributions by other breeds, the genetic diversity within subpopulations can be improved. Conclusion In principle, the European mainland Thai cat population can achieve a genetic diversity of about 26 founder genome equivalents, a value that could potentially sustain a genetically diverse population. However, reaching such a target will be difficult in the absence of a supervised breeding program. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained by minimisation of kinships within regional subpopulations. Exchanging animals between different regions on a small scale might be already quite useful to reduce the kinship, by achieving a potential diversity of 23 founder genome equivalents. However, contributions by other breeds should be minimised to preserve the original Siamese gene pool.
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
free text keywords: Genetics, Animal Science and Zoology, General Medicine, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, [SDV]Life Sciences [q-bio], Research Article, Selection (genetic algorithm), Gene pool, Siamese cat, biology.animal_breed, biology, Genetic diversity, Population, education.field_of_study, education, Inbreeding, Breeding program, Inbreeding depression, Evolutionary biology, lcsh:Animal culture, lcsh:SF1-1100, lcsh:Genetics, lcsh:QH426-470
Related Organizations
32 references, page 1 of 3

1. McNeely JA, Miller KR, Reid WV, Mittermeier RA, Werner TB. Conserving the world's biological diversity. IUCN, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, WWF-US and the World Bank. Washington: Island Press; 1990.

2. Vella CM, Shelton LM, McGonagle JJ, Stanglein TW. Robinson's genetics for cat breeders and veterinarians. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2005.

3. The Siamese. http://www.cfa.org/Breeds/BreedsSthruT/Siamese.aspx. Accessed 18 December 2019.

4. Thai breed. https://www.tica.org/breeds/browse-all-breeds?view=artic le&id=883:thai-breed&catid=79. Accessed 18 December 2019.

5. Menotti-Raymond M, David VA, Pflueger S, Roelke ME, Kehler J, O'Brien SJ, et al. Widespread retinal degenerative disease mutation (rdac) discovered among a large number of popular cat breeds. Vet J. 2010;186:32-8.

6. The CFA Siamese breed council database. http://www.siamese.subal i-klm.com. Accessed 18 December 2019.

7. PawPeds. https://www.pawpeds.com/db/?p=sia. Accessed 18 December 2019.

8. The FIFe easy mind system (EMS). http://fifew eb.org/wp/breeds/breed s_ems.php. Accessed 18 February 2020.

9. Ballou JD, Lees C, Faust LJ, Long S, Lynch C, Bingaman Lackey L, et al. Demographic and genetic management of captive populations. In: Kirk-Baer C, editor. Wild mammals in captivity: principles and techniques for zoo mamangement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2010. p. 219-52.

10. Lacy RC. Clarification of genetic terms and their use in the management of captive populations. Zoo Biol. 1995;14:565-78. [OpenAIRE]

11. Henderson CR. Simple method for computing the inverse of a numerator relationship matrix used in prediction of breeding values. Biometrics. 1976;32:69-83.

12. Wellmann R, Hartwig S, Bennewitz J. Optimum contribution selection for conserved populations with historic migration. Genet Sel Evol. 2012;44:34. [OpenAIRE]

13. Eding H, Crooijmans RPMA, Groenen MAM, Meuwissen THE. Assessing the contribution of breeds to genetic diversity in conservation schemes. Genet Sel Evol. 2002;34:613-33. [OpenAIRE]

14. Johnson SG. The NLopt nonlinear-optimization package. http://githu b.com/stevengj/nlopt. Accessed 18 December 2019.

15. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 18 December 2019.

32 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
Abstract Background For many years, breeders of companion animals have applied inbreeding or line breeding to transfer desirable genetic traits from parents to their offspring. Simultaneously, this resulted in a considerable spread of hereditary diseases and phenomena associated with inbreeding depression. Results Our cluster analysis of kinship and inbreeding coefficients suggests that the Thai or traditional Siamese cat could be considered as a subpopulation of the Siamese cat, which shares common ancestors, although they are considered as separate breeds. In addition, model-based cluster analysis could detect regional differences between Thai subpopulations. We show that by applying optimal contribution selection and simultaneously limiting the contributions by other breeds, the genetic diversity within subpopulations can be improved. Conclusion In principle, the European mainland Thai cat population can achieve a genetic diversity of about 26 founder genome equivalents, a value that could potentially sustain a genetically diverse population. However, reaching such a target will be difficult in the absence of a supervised breeding program. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained by minimisation of kinships within regional subpopulations. Exchanging animals between different regions on a small scale might be already quite useful to reduce the kinship, by achieving a potential diversity of 23 founder genome equivalents. However, contributions by other breeds should be minimised to preserve the original Siamese gene pool.
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
free text keywords: Genetics, Animal Science and Zoology, General Medicine, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, [SDV]Life Sciences [q-bio], Research Article, Selection (genetic algorithm), Gene pool, Siamese cat, biology.animal_breed, biology, Genetic diversity, Population, education.field_of_study, education, Inbreeding, Breeding program, Inbreeding depression, Evolutionary biology, lcsh:Animal culture, lcsh:SF1-1100, lcsh:Genetics, lcsh:QH426-470
Related Organizations
32 references, page 1 of 3

1. McNeely JA, Miller KR, Reid WV, Mittermeier RA, Werner TB. Conserving the world's biological diversity. IUCN, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, WWF-US and the World Bank. Washington: Island Press; 1990.

2. Vella CM, Shelton LM, McGonagle JJ, Stanglein TW. Robinson's genetics for cat breeders and veterinarians. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2005.

3. The Siamese. http://www.cfa.org/Breeds/BreedsSthruT/Siamese.aspx. Accessed 18 December 2019.

4. Thai breed. https://www.tica.org/breeds/browse-all-breeds?view=artic le&id=883:thai-breed&catid=79. Accessed 18 December 2019.

5. Menotti-Raymond M, David VA, Pflueger S, Roelke ME, Kehler J, O'Brien SJ, et al. Widespread retinal degenerative disease mutation (rdac) discovered among a large number of popular cat breeds. Vet J. 2010;186:32-8.

6. The CFA Siamese breed council database. http://www.siamese.subal i-klm.com. Accessed 18 December 2019.

7. PawPeds. https://www.pawpeds.com/db/?p=sia. Accessed 18 December 2019.

8. The FIFe easy mind system (EMS). http://fifew eb.org/wp/breeds/breed s_ems.php. Accessed 18 February 2020.

9. Ballou JD, Lees C, Faust LJ, Long S, Lynch C, Bingaman Lackey L, et al. Demographic and genetic management of captive populations. In: Kirk-Baer C, editor. Wild mammals in captivity: principles and techniques for zoo mamangement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2010. p. 219-52.

10. Lacy RC. Clarification of genetic terms and their use in the management of captive populations. Zoo Biol. 1995;14:565-78. [OpenAIRE]

11. Henderson CR. Simple method for computing the inverse of a numerator relationship matrix used in prediction of breeding values. Biometrics. 1976;32:69-83.

12. Wellmann R, Hartwig S, Bennewitz J. Optimum contribution selection for conserved populations with historic migration. Genet Sel Evol. 2012;44:34. [OpenAIRE]

13. Eding H, Crooijmans RPMA, Groenen MAM, Meuwissen THE. Assessing the contribution of breeds to genetic diversity in conservation schemes. Genet Sel Evol. 2002;34:613-33. [OpenAIRE]

14. Johnson SG. The NLopt nonlinear-optimization package. http://githu b.com/stevengj/nlopt. Accessed 18 December 2019.

15. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 18 December 2019.

32 references, page 1 of 3
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