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Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018

Parent-of-Origin-Dependent Gene Expression in Male and Female Schistosome Parasites

Julien Kincaid-Smith; Marion Picard; Céline Cosseau; Jérôme Boissier; Dany Severac; Christoph Grunau; Eve Toulza;
Open Access
Published: 01 Jan 2018 Journal: Genome Biology and Evolution, volume 10, pages 840-856 (eissn: 1759-6653, Copyright policy )
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Country: France
Abstract

Abstract Schistosomes are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Additionally to their major impact on human health, they are also models of choice in evolutionary biology. These parasitic flatworms are unique among the common hermaphroditic trematodes as they have separate sexes. This so-called “evolutionary scandal” displays a female heterogametic genetic sex-determination system (ZZ males and ZW females), as well as a pronounced adult sexual dimorphism. These phenotypic differences are determined by a shared set of genes in both sexes, potentially leading to intralocus sexual conflicts. To resolve these conflicts in sexually selected traits, molecular mechanisms such as sex-biased gene expression could occur, but parent-of-origin gene expression also provides an alternative. In this work we investigated the latter mechanism, that is, genes expressed preferentially from either the maternal or the paternal allele, in Schistosoma mansoni species. To this end, transcriptomes from male and female hybrid adults obtained by strain crosses were sequenced. Strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers allowed us to discriminate the parental origin, while reciprocal crosses helped to differentiate parental expression from strain-specific expression. We identified genes containing SNPs expressed in a parent-of-origin manner consistent with paternal and maternal imprints. Although the majority of the SNPs was identified in mitochondrial and Z-specific loci, the remaining SNPs found in male and female transcriptomes were situated in genes that have the potential to explain sexual differences in schistosome parasites. Furthermore, we identified and validated four new Z-specific scaffolds.

Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Schistosoma mansoni biology.organism_classification biology Sexual dimorphism Gene Allele Genetics Phenotype Sex characteristics Single-nucleotide polymorphism Heterogametic sex

Subjects

Genetics, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, [SDV.MP.PAR]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Microbiology and Parasitology/Parasitology, [SDV.BBM.GTP]Life Sciences [q-bio]/Biochemistry, Molecular Biology/Genomics [q-bio.GN], parent-of-origin gene expression, sexual dimorphism, intralocus sexual conflict, male-female coevolution, Schistosoma mansoni, Research Article, parent-of-origin gene expression, sexual dimorphism, intralocus sexual conflict, male–female coevolution, Schistosoma mansoni

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