publication . Article . 2002

Fear and power-dominance drive motivation: neural representations and pathways mediating sensory and mnemonic inputs, and outputs to premotor structures

Terence V. Sewards; Mark A. Sewards;
Open Access
  • Published: 02 Dec 2002 Journal: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, volume 26, pages 553-579 (issn: 0149-7634, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Elsevier BV
Based on the available literature on activation of brain structures by fear- and anger-inducing stimuli, on the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation and lesions of candidate structures, and on connectional data, we propose that both the fear and power-dominance drives are represented in four distinct locations: the medial hypothalamus, lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, midline thalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex. The hypothalamic fear representation is located in the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, the midbrain representation in the caudal part of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, the thalamic representation primarily in parts of the paraventricular and reuniens thalamic nuclei, and the cortical representation in prelimbic cortex. The hypothalamic power-dominance representation is located in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial nucleus, and in adjacent parts of the medial preoptic area. The corresponding midbrain representation occurs in rostral part of the lateral/dorsolateral periaqueductal gray, and the thalamic representation in parts of the paraventricular, parataenial, and reuniens thalamic nuclei. We discuss sensory/mnemonic inputs to these representations, and outputs to premotor structures in the medulla, caudate-putamen, and cortex, and their differential contributions to involuntary, learned sequential, and voluntary motor acts. We examine potential contributions of neuronal activities in these representations to the subjective awareness of fear and anger.
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Medical Subject Headings: nervous system
free text keywords: Behavioral Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology, Periaqueductal gray, Midbrain, Infralimbic cortex, medicine.anatomical_structure, medicine, Psychology, Hypothalamus, Cortex (anatomy), Neuroscience, Prefrontal cortex, Anterior hypothalamic nucleus, Sensory system
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