Radiotherapy Proton Interactions in Matter

Preprint English OPEN
Gottschalk, Bernard;
(2018)
  • Subject: Physics - Medical Physics
    arxiv: Physics::Medical Physics

A survey of physics useful to proton radiotherapy, centered on stopping, scattering and hard scatters: 1. Introduction 2. The fundamental formula dose = fluence x mass stopping power. Practical units, comments on effective stopping power. 3. Range: experimental definiti... View more
  • References (16)
    16 references, page 1 of 2

    3 Stopping 6 3.1 Experimental De nition of Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 Theoretical CSDA Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3 Interpolating Range-Energy Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4 Range Straggling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    4 Multiple Coulomb Scattering 9 4.1 Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2 Elements of Moliere Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3 The Gaussian Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4 Scattering Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    6 Bragg Curve and E ective Stopping Power 17 6.1 Electromagnetic Stopping Power Sem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.2 Transverse Equilibrium and Smixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.3 Measuring Smixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.4 Parameterizing the Nuclear Halo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.5 Energy Dependence of Bragg Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.6 The Disappearing Bragg Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.7 Nuclear Buildup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    7 Looking Ahead 21 7.1 Fermi-Eyges Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.2 The Preston and Koehler Manuscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.3 A Comprehensive Pencil Beam Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 [17] T. Siiskonen, H. Kettunen, K. Perajarvi, A. Javanainen, M. Rossi, W.H. Trzaska, J. Turunen and A. Virtanen, `Energy loss measurement of protons in liquid water,' Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 2367-2374.

    [19] W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky and W.T. Vetterling, \Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scienti c Computing," Cambridge University Press (1986).

    [31] W.T. Scott, `The theory of small-angle multiple scattering of fast charged particles,' Rev. Mod. Phys. 35 (1963) 231-313.

    [32] A.O.Hanson, L.H. Lanzl, E.M. Lyman and M.B. Scott, `Measurement of multiple scattering of 15.7-MeV electrons,' Phys. Rev. 84 (1951) 634-637.

    [33] Hans Bichsel, `Multiple scattering of protons,' Phys. Rev. 112 (1958) 182-185.

    [35] Bruno Rossi, \High-Energy Particles", Prentice-Hall, New York (1952).

    [46] Bernard Gottschalk, Ethan W. Cascio, Juliane Daartz and Miles S. Wagner, `Nuclear halo of a 177MeV proton beam in water: theory, measurement and parameterization,' arXiv:1409.1938v1 (2014).

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