publication . Preprint . 2018

Radiotherapy Proton Interactions in Matter

Gottschalk, Bernard;
Open Access English
  • Published: 30 Mar 2018
Abstract
A survey of physics useful to proton radiotherapy, centered on stopping, scattering and hard scatters: 1. Introduction 2. The fundamental formula dose = fluence x mass stopping power. Practical units, comments on effective stopping power. 3. Range: experimental definition, Beth-Bloch CSDA theory, range-energy tables and approximations, range straggling. 4. Multiple Coulomb Scattering: suggested reading, elements of Moliere theory, the Gaussian approximation, scattering power. 5. Hard scatters (nuclear interactions): contributing reactions, shape and size of the halo, experiment, halo as a Monte Carlo test. 6. Bragg curve (effective stopping power): limiting case...
Subjects
arXiv: Physics::Medical Physics
free text keywords: Physics - Medical Physics
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16 references, page 1 of 2

3 Stopping 6 3.1 Experimental De nition of Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 Theoretical CSDA Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3 Interpolating Range-Energy Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4 Range Straggling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

4 Multiple Coulomb Scattering 9 4.1 Suggested Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2 Elements of Moliere Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3 The Gaussian Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4 Scattering Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

6 Bragg Curve and E ective Stopping Power 17 6.1 Electromagnetic Stopping Power Sem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.2 Transverse Equilibrium and Smixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.3 Measuring Smixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.4 Parameterizing the Nuclear Halo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.5 Energy Dependence of Bragg Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.6 The Disappearing Bragg Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.7 Nuclear Buildup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

7 Looking Ahead 21 7.1 Fermi-Eyges Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.2 The Preston and Koehler Manuscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.3 A Comprehensive Pencil Beam Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 [17] T. Siiskonen, H. Kettunen, K. Perajarvi, A. Javanainen, M. Rossi, W.H. Trzaska, J. Turunen and A. Virtanen, `Energy loss measurement of protons in liquid water,' Phys. Med. Biol. 56 (2011) 2367-2374.

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