From Photons to Atoms - The Electromagnetic Nature of Matter

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Funaro, Daniele;
(2012)

Motivated by a revision of the classical equations of electromagnetism that allow for the inclusion of solitary waves in the solution space, the material collected in these notes examines the consequences of adopting the modified model in the description of atomic struc... View more
  • References (23)
    23 references, page 1 of 3

    1 The world of photons 1 1.1 Why improving the theory of electromagnetism? . . . . 1 1.2 Photon's structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3 A closer look at the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.4 Connections with special relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1.5 The geometry of space-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1.6 The geometry of a single photon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.7 Constrained waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 1.8 Vortex rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    2 The subatomic environment 69 2.1 Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 2.2 Surface tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 2.3 Protons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 2.4 Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 2.5 Mass and Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 2.6 Antimatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    3 The constituents of matter 143 3.1 The hydrogen atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 3.2 Organization of the photon shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 3.3 The structure of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 3.4 In and around matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 3.5 Quantum properties of matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 3.6 More on quantum properties of matter . . . . . . . . . . 210 3.7 Implications on biological systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 3.8 The birth of an idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 1 c 1 c

    [10] Bailar J.C., Emeleus H.J., Sir Ronald Nyholm, Trotman-Dickenson A.F. (Editors), Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamom Press, 1973.

    [11] Bak P., Tang C., Wiesenfeld K., Self-organized criticality, Phys. Rev. A, 38-1 (1988), pp.364-374.

    [12] Barrow G.M., Physical Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, 1996.

    [13] Batchelor G.K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1967.

    [28] Dewey E.R., Dakin E.F., Cycles, the Science of Prediction, H. Holt & Company, New York, 1947.

    [30] Domon K., Ishihara O., Watanabe S., Mass transport by a vortex ring, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 69 (2000), pp.120-123.

    [62] Hecht R., Optics, Addison-Wesley, International Edition, 2002.

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