publication . Article . Preprint . 2017

Weakening and shifting of the Saharan shallow meridional circulation during wet years of the West African monsoon

Shekhar, Ravi; Boos, William R.;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Sep 2017
  • Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
  • Country: United States
Abstract
Comment: Submitted to Journal of Climate
Subjects
free text keywords: Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography, Geomatic Engineering, Atmospheric Science, Precipitation, Outflow, Geopotential, Mass flux, Thermohaline circulation, Meridional circulation, Atmospheric sciences, Climatology, Monsoon, Surface pressure, Geology, Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics
21 references, page 1 of 2

Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979 - Present). Emanuel, K. A., J. David Neelin, and C. S. BretherJournal of Hydrometeorology, 4 (6), 1147- ton, 1994: On large-scale circulations in convect1167, doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004h1147: ing atmospheres. Quarterly Journal of the Royal TVGPCPi2.0.CO;2. Meteorological Society, 120 (519), 1111-1143, doi:10.1002/qj.49712051902.

Botvinnik, O., and Coauthors, 2016: seaborn: v0.7.0 (January 2016). URL https://github.com/ Folland, C. K., T. N. Palmer, and D. E. Parker, mwaskom/seaborn, doi:10.5281/zenodo.45133. 1986: Sahel rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures, 1901-85. Nature, 320 (6063), 602-607, doi: 10.1038/320602a0.

Charney, J., P. H. Stone, and W. J. Quirk, 1975: Drought in the Sahara: A Biogeophysical Feedback Mechanism. Science, 187 (4175), 434-435, Gelaro, R. and co-authors, 2016 in preparation: doi:10.1126/science.187.4175.434. MERRA-2 Overview. Journal of Climate. [OpenAIRE]

Grist, J. P., and S. E. Nicholson, 2001: A Study of the Dynamic Factors Influencing the Rainfall Variability in the West African Sahel. Journal of Cli- Losada, T., B. Rodriguez-Fonseca, E. Mohino, mate, 14 (7), 1337-1359. J. Bader, S. Janicot, and C. R. Mechoso, 2012: Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A nonstationary relationship. Geophysical Research Letters, 39 (12), 1-7, doi:10.1029/2012GL052423.

Haarsma, R. J., F. M. Selten, S. L. Weber, and M. Kliphuis, 2005: Sahel rainfall variability and response to greenhouse warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (1), 17 702, doi:10.1029/ Neelin, J. D., and N. Zeng, 2000: A Quasi2005GL023232. Equilibrium Tropical Circulation ModelfHagos, S. M., and K. H. Cook, 2007: Dynam- gFormulation*. Journal of the Atmoics of the West African monsoon jump. Jour- spheric Sciences, 57 (11), 1741-1766, nal of Climate, 20 (21), 5264-5284, doi:10.1175/ doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057h1741: 2007JCLI1533.1. AQETCMi2.0.CO;2. [OpenAIRE]

Holloway, C., and J. D. Neelin, 2009: Moisture vertical structure, column water vapor, and tropical deep convection. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, doi:10.1175/2008JAS2806.1. [OpenAIRE]

Hsieh, J.-S., and K. H. Cook, 2005: Generation of African Easterly Wave Disturbances: Relationship to the African Easterly Jet. Monthly Weather Review, 133 (5), 1311-1327, doi:10. 1175/MWR2916.1.

Nicholson, S., 2005: On the question of the recovery of the rains in the West African Sahel. Journal of Arid Environments, 63 (3), 615-641, doi:10.1016/ j.jaridenv.2005.03.004.

Nicholson, S., and J. Grist, 2001: A conceptual model for understanding rainfall variability in the West African Sahel on interannual and interdecadal timescales. International Journal of Climatology, 21 (14), 1733-1757, doi:10.1002/joc. 648. [OpenAIRE]

Hurley, J. V., and W. R. Boos, 2013: Interannual Variability of Monsoon Precipitation and Lo- Nicholson, S. E., 2013: The West African Sahel: A cal Subcloud Equivalent Potential Temperature. Review of Recent Studies on the Rainfall Regime Journal of Climate, 26, 9507-9527, doi:10.1175/ and Its Interannual Variability. ISRN Meteorology, JCLI-D-12-00229.1. 2013 (4), 1-32, doi:10.1155/2013/453521.

Lavaysse, C., C. Flamant, and S. Janicot, 2010a: Nicholson, S. E., A. K. Dezfuli, and D. KlotRegional-scale convection patterns during strong ter, 2011: A Two-Century Precipitation Data and weak phases of the Saharan heat low. Atmo- Set for the Continent of Africa. Bulletin of the spheric Science Letters, 11 (4), 255-264. American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/ BAMS-D-11-00212.1. [OpenAIRE]

Lavaysse, C., C. Flamant, S. Janicot, and P. Knippertz, 2010b: Links between African easterly waves, midlatitude circulation and intraseasonal pulsations of the West African heat low. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136 (1), 141-158, doi:10.1002/qj.555.

Nie, J., W. R. Boos, and Z. Kuang, 2010: Observational Evaluation of a Convective QuasiEquilibrium View of Monsoons. Journal of Climate, 23 (16), 4416-4428, doi:10.1175/ 2010JCLI3505.1.

Peyrille´, P., and J.-P. Lafore, 2007: An Idealized Sobel, A. H., and T. Schneider, 2009: Single-layer Two-Dimensional Framework to Study the West axisymmetric model for a Hadley circulation with African Monsoon. Part II: Large-Scale Advec- parameterized eddy momentum forcing. Journal tion and the Diurnal Cycle. Journal of the Atmo- of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 2, 10. spheric Sciences, 64 (8), 2783-2803, doi:10.1175/ JAS4052.1.

Thorncroft, C. D., and M. Blackburn, 1999: Maintenance of the African easterly jet. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 125 (555), 763-786, doi:10.1002/qj. 49712555502. [OpenAIRE]

21 references, page 1 of 2
Abstract
Comment: Submitted to Journal of Climate
Subjects
free text keywords: Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences, Oceanography, Geomatic Engineering, Atmospheric Science, Precipitation, Outflow, Geopotential, Mass flux, Thermohaline circulation, Meridional circulation, Atmospheric sciences, Climatology, Monsoon, Surface pressure, Geology, Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics
21 references, page 1 of 2

Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979 - Present). Emanuel, K. A., J. David Neelin, and C. S. BretherJournal of Hydrometeorology, 4 (6), 1147- ton, 1994: On large-scale circulations in convect1167, doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004h1147: ing atmospheres. Quarterly Journal of the Royal TVGPCPi2.0.CO;2. Meteorological Society, 120 (519), 1111-1143, doi:10.1002/qj.49712051902.

Botvinnik, O., and Coauthors, 2016: seaborn: v0.7.0 (January 2016). URL https://github.com/ Folland, C. K., T. N. Palmer, and D. E. Parker, mwaskom/seaborn, doi:10.5281/zenodo.45133. 1986: Sahel rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures, 1901-85. Nature, 320 (6063), 602-607, doi: 10.1038/320602a0.

Charney, J., P. H. Stone, and W. J. Quirk, 1975: Drought in the Sahara: A Biogeophysical Feedback Mechanism. Science, 187 (4175), 434-435, Gelaro, R. and co-authors, 2016 in preparation: doi:10.1126/science.187.4175.434. MERRA-2 Overview. Journal of Climate. [OpenAIRE]

Grist, J. P., and S. E. Nicholson, 2001: A Study of the Dynamic Factors Influencing the Rainfall Variability in the West African Sahel. Journal of Cli- Losada, T., B. Rodriguez-Fonseca, E. Mohino, mate, 14 (7), 1337-1359. J. Bader, S. Janicot, and C. R. Mechoso, 2012: Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A nonstationary relationship. Geophysical Research Letters, 39 (12), 1-7, doi:10.1029/2012GL052423.

Haarsma, R. J., F. M. Selten, S. L. Weber, and M. Kliphuis, 2005: Sahel rainfall variability and response to greenhouse warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (1), 17 702, doi:10.1029/ Neelin, J. D., and N. Zeng, 2000: A Quasi2005GL023232. Equilibrium Tropical Circulation ModelfHagos, S. M., and K. H. Cook, 2007: Dynam- gFormulation*. Journal of the Atmoics of the West African monsoon jump. Jour- spheric Sciences, 57 (11), 1741-1766, nal of Climate, 20 (21), 5264-5284, doi:10.1175/ doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057h1741: 2007JCLI1533.1. AQETCMi2.0.CO;2. [OpenAIRE]

Holloway, C., and J. D. Neelin, 2009: Moisture vertical structure, column water vapor, and tropical deep convection. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, doi:10.1175/2008JAS2806.1. [OpenAIRE]

Hsieh, J.-S., and K. H. Cook, 2005: Generation of African Easterly Wave Disturbances: Relationship to the African Easterly Jet. Monthly Weather Review, 133 (5), 1311-1327, doi:10. 1175/MWR2916.1.

Nicholson, S., 2005: On the question of the recovery of the rains in the West African Sahel. Journal of Arid Environments, 63 (3), 615-641, doi:10.1016/ j.jaridenv.2005.03.004.

Nicholson, S., and J. Grist, 2001: A conceptual model for understanding rainfall variability in the West African Sahel on interannual and interdecadal timescales. International Journal of Climatology, 21 (14), 1733-1757, doi:10.1002/joc. 648. [OpenAIRE]

Hurley, J. V., and W. R. Boos, 2013: Interannual Variability of Monsoon Precipitation and Lo- Nicholson, S. E., 2013: The West African Sahel: A cal Subcloud Equivalent Potential Temperature. Review of Recent Studies on the Rainfall Regime Journal of Climate, 26, 9507-9527, doi:10.1175/ and Its Interannual Variability. ISRN Meteorology, JCLI-D-12-00229.1. 2013 (4), 1-32, doi:10.1155/2013/453521.

Lavaysse, C., C. Flamant, and S. Janicot, 2010a: Nicholson, S. E., A. K. Dezfuli, and D. KlotRegional-scale convection patterns during strong ter, 2011: A Two-Century Precipitation Data and weak phases of the Saharan heat low. Atmo- Set for the Continent of Africa. Bulletin of the spheric Science Letters, 11 (4), 255-264. American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/ BAMS-D-11-00212.1. [OpenAIRE]

Lavaysse, C., C. Flamant, S. Janicot, and P. Knippertz, 2010b: Links between African easterly waves, midlatitude circulation and intraseasonal pulsations of the West African heat low. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 136 (1), 141-158, doi:10.1002/qj.555.

Nie, J., W. R. Boos, and Z. Kuang, 2010: Observational Evaluation of a Convective QuasiEquilibrium View of Monsoons. Journal of Climate, 23 (16), 4416-4428, doi:10.1175/ 2010JCLI3505.1.

Peyrille´, P., and J.-P. Lafore, 2007: An Idealized Sobel, A. H., and T. Schneider, 2009: Single-layer Two-Dimensional Framework to Study the West axisymmetric model for a Hadley circulation with African Monsoon. Part II: Large-Scale Advec- parameterized eddy momentum forcing. Journal tion and the Diurnal Cycle. Journal of the Atmo- of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 2, 10. spheric Sciences, 64 (8), 2783-2803, doi:10.1175/ JAS4052.1.

Thorncroft, C. D., and M. Blackburn, 1999: Maintenance of the African easterly jet. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 125 (555), 763-786, doi:10.1002/qj. 49712555502. [OpenAIRE]

21 references, page 1 of 2
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publication . Article . Preprint . 2017

Weakening and shifting of the Saharan shallow meridional circulation during wet years of the West African monsoon

Shekhar, Ravi; Boos, William R.;