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2 R.B. Laughlin, Phys. Rev. B 23, 5632 (1981).
3 We emphasize that here we have used the basic fact of quantum Hall effect, i.e., σxx = 0 and σxy 6= 0.
4 W.P. Su and J.R. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 738 (1981).
5 J. Goldstone and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 986 (1981).
6 C.G. Callan, Jr. and J.A. Harvey, Nucl. Phys. B 250, 427 (1985).
7 Streda, J. Kucera and A.H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1973 (1987).
8 J.K. Jain and S.A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. B 37, 4276 (1988).
9 M. Buttiker, Phys. Rev. B 38,9375 (1988).
10 The minus sign in the second equation is due to the fact that under the geometry we defined earlier, the edge current flows in the −xˆ direction.
11 For a review, see X.G. Wen, Adv. Phys. 44, 405 (1995).