Diesel soot oxidation under controlled conditions
- Publisher: Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses
Diesel soot oxidation | Soot oxidation conditions | Morphology | Size distributions | Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/12/2003.
In order to improve understanding of diesel soot oxidation, an experimental rig was designed and set up, in which the soot oxidation conditions, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and CO2 partial pressure, could be varied independently of each other. The oxidizing gas flow in the oxidizer was under laminar condition. This test rig comprised a naturally-aspirated single cylinder engine which acted as the soot generator, and a separate premixed oxidation burner system in which soot extracted from the engine was oxidized under controlled conditions. Diesel soot was extracted from the engine exhaust pipe and from the engine pre-combustion chamber, and the soot-laden gas was then conveyed to the burner where it was oxidized. The burner was positioned vertically and it had a flat flame whose thickness was only a few millimetres. The hot gases from the flame flew upwards through a quartz transparent tube which acted as the soot oxidation duct. The soot-laden gas from the engine was premixed with the feedgas (itself a premixed mixture of methane, air, oxygen, and nitrogen) to the burner. The soot particles passed vertically through the flame front and continued burning in the post-flame gas flowing through the quartz tube oxidation duct. The oxygen concentration and temperature of the post-flame soot oxidation gas were controllable by adjusting the flowrate and composition of the burner feedgas. Diesel soot particles were sampled at different heights along the centreline of the quartz tube above the burner. Profiles of oxygen concentration, temperature, and soot particle velocity in the oxidation zone were thus measured. Morphology and size distributions of the sampled diesel soot particles were analyzed by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and a computer software called ImagePro Plus. Subsequently, the specific surface oxidation rates of the soot particles were worked out based on soot particle size distributions.
The TEM micrographs obtained in this study showed that the diesel soot agglomerates existed in forms of clusters and chains, each containing between a small number and thousands of individual, mostly spherical tiny particles. Of order 97% of the individual spherical particles (spherules) had a size range from 10 to 80 nm. Occasionally, individual spherules of about 150 nm in diameter could be observed. The diesel soot particles sampled from the pre-chamber of the engine had different size distributions from those sampled from the exhaust of the engine, indicating that the soot underwent an oxidation process in the combustion chamber. Soot oxidation experiments were performed in the burner post-flame gas under oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.010 to 0.050 atm and temperatures from
1520 to 1820 K. The test results showed that the oxidation rates of the diesel soot extracted from the diesel engine were generally lower than those predicted by the well-known Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula; however, the measured oxidation rates were higher than the predictions made with another well-known formula - the Lee formula. The soot extracted from the engine pre-chamber appeared not to oxidize as fast as the soot extracted from the exhaust of the engine. CO2 gas injection to the post-flame oxidation gas at constant oxygen partial pressure and oxidation temperature seemed to have accelerated the diesel soot oxidation rate. Based on the experimental results of this study and the results of other researchers, modifications to the Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula and to the Lee formula were accomplished. Also, an empirical expression, as an alternative to semi-empirical formulae, was worked out and presented in the thesis.
EPSRC, Grant No. GR/L67288/01