publication . Article . 2009

What is Science? Defining Science by Numbers, 1920-2000 (part 1)

Benoit Godin;
Open Access
  • Published: 01 Jan 2009 Journal: Foresight-Russia, volume 3, issue 2, pages 48-60
The quest for the definition of science took up scientific minds long ago. Different epochs and philosophical schools developed their own interpretations of the term which quite often were in the center of scientific debates. Nevertheless, the beginning of the 20th century gave rise to a new – official – definition which was to help state bodies in measuring and estimating the effect R&D activities had on the economy and society. The fact should be mentioned that this definition has never been systematically examined. Thus, this paper attempts to fill the gap. Its first part (published in the given issue) documents how research became the central concept for mea...
free text keywords: research and development; statistical measurement, jel:O38
58 references, page 1 of 4

15 Об истории развития промышленных исследовательских лабораторий см.: [NRC, 1941; Whitney, 1985; Reich, 1985; Houndshell, Smith, 1988; Heerding, 1986; Schopman, 1989; Graham, Pruitt, 1991; Dennis, 1987, pp. 479-518; Mowery, 1984; Meyer-Thurow, 1982; Shinn, 1980]. О статистическом анализе см.: [Mowery, Rosenberg, 1989; Mowery, 1983; Edgerton, Horrocks, 1994; Horrocks, 1999; Mowery, 1986; Edgerton, 1993; Edgerton, 1987; Sanderson, 1972].

16 О кампании в поддержку развития ассоциаций промышленных исследований Великобритании см.: [Committee on Industry and Trade, 1927; Edgerton, Horrocks, 1994, pp. 215-216].

17 Доклад Национального исследовательского совета, подготовленный в 1918-1919 гг. для Совета по национальной безопасности (Council of National Defense), цитируется в работе [Barrows, 1941].

18 Институт был создан в 1938 г. под названием «Национальный институт промышленных исследовательских лабораторий» (National Industrial Research Laboratories Institute), но год спустя был переименован в Институт промышленных исследований (Industrial Research Institute). Он стал независимой организа- цией в 1945 г.

Messman K. A Study of Key Concepts and Norms for the International Collection and Presentation of Science Statistics, COM-75/WS/26. UNESCO, 1977.

Meyer-uThrow G. eTh Industrialization of Invention: A Case Study from the German Chemical Industry / ISIS, 1982, v. 73. P. 363-381.

Mowery D. Firm Structure, Government Policy, and the Organization of Industrial Research: Great Britain and the United States, 1900-1950 / Business History Review, 1984. P. 504-531.

Mowery D.C. (1983), Industrial Research and Firm Size: Survival, and Growth in American Manufacturing, 1921-1946: An Assessment // Journal of Economic History, 1983, v. 63, № 4. P. 953-980.

Mowery D.C. Industrial Research, 1900-1950 / B. Elbaum, W. Lazonick (eds.). eTh Decline of the British Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Mowery D.C., Rosenberg N. eTh US Research System Before 1945 / D.C. Mowery, N. Rosenberg (eds.). Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

National Resources Committee. Research: A National Resource (I): Relation of the Federal Government to Research. Washington: USGPO, 1938.

National Science Foundation. Federal Funds for Science: Federal Funds for Scientific R&D at Nonprotfi Institutions 1950-1951 and 1951-1952. Washington, 1953.

Nelson R.R. eTh Simple Economics of Basic Research // Journal of Political Economy, 1959, № 67. P. 297-306.

Novick D. eTh ABC of R&D // Challenge, June 1965. P. 13.

Novick D. What do we Mean by R&D? // Air Force Magazine, October 1960. P. 114-118.

58 references, page 1 of 4
Powered by OpenAIRE Research Graph
Any information missing or wrong?Report an Issue