The authors found that, in post-communist economies, the unofficial economy's share of GDP is determined by the extent of control rights held by bureaucrats and politicians. Exploring in detail the role of taxation and bribery, and using data from an expanded data set o... View more
97Eeuie'rsosst h usin Gvrmn euain (v2.08).Notethat ahigherscoremeanslessdiscretion(1-7).
197Countries with lower(highers)coresfulfillmore(lesso)f thefollowingconditionsthat theymet. Notethat a higher ivaluemeanslessfree(1-5). a licenserequiredto operatea businessI?s it easyto obtain? Is therecorruptionwithinthebureaucracy? Doesthegovernmenf otrcebusinessetos subscribteo establishewdorkweeks, paidvacationsm,aternity ~~~~~et~c.~?~-~~~~leave,