Nonpasserine bird produces soft calls and pays retaliation cost

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Paweł Ręk; Tomasz S. Osiejuk;
(2011)

Low-amplitude vocalizations produced during aggressive encounters, courtship, or both (quiet/soft songs) have been described for many species of song-learning passerines; however, such signals have not been studied among nonlearning birds. During aggressive interactions... View more
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