publication . Article . 2011

Nonpasserine bird produces soft calls and pays retaliation cost

Paweł Ręk; Tomasz S. Osiejuk;
Open Access
  • Published: 01 Jan 2011 Journal: Behavioral Ecology, volume 22, issue 3, pages 657-662
Abstract
Low-amplitude vocalizations produced during aggressive encounters, courtship, or both (quiet/soft songs) have been described for many species of song-learning passerines; however, such signals have not been studied among nonlearning birds. During aggressive interactions, apart from using the broadcast call, male corncrakes (Crex crex) produce a low-amplitude, gurgling--mewing call, which appears to be equivalent to soft songs of songbirds. Previous studies have shown that low-amplitude vocalizations are reliable signals of aggressive motivation. It is unclear, however, how the reliability of such signals is maintained. We experimentally tested whether males that...
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