Mutual Transformation and the Development of European Policy Spaces : the Case of Medicine Licensing
Boris Hauray, Philippe Urfalino
European public space
This article pleads for a systemic approach to European policy spaces formation. The termmutual transformation is used to underline three observations concerning how Europeanpolicy spaces are formed: 1) influence among the levels composing the Union runssimultaneously from Brussels to the lower levels, from the lower levels to the EUauthorities, and from country to country; 2) sources of change are both exogenous andendogenous; 3) the nature of the policies under study and the issues and interestsassociated with them evolve over time, affecting the identities of the different-level actors andtheir ties. The case of drug licensing is used to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. Tocome to grips with the complexity of the processes explaining the creation of a Europeanpolicy space for medicines, we emphasize the role played by three closely interrelatedmechanisms: competition, cooperation and the transformation of relations between expertiseand policy-making.