3Several studies have quantified the costs of environmental regulation (Hazilla and Kopp 1990, Jorgenson and Wilcoxen 1990, Gruenspecht 1982, White 1982, Nelson, Tietenberg and Donihue 1993).
6For more on the IM240 see McConnell and Harrington 1992 and the U.S General Accounting Office 1992.
MacAvoy, Paul. "The Record of the Environmental Protection Agency in Controlling Industrial Air Pollution." In Energy Markets and Regulation. Edited by R.L. Gordon et. al. Cambridge MA: Ballinger 1987, pp. 459-488.
Mills, Edwin and Lawrence White. "Government Policies toward Automotive Emissions Control." in Approaches to Controlling Air Pollution. edited by Ann Friedlaender. MIT Press. 1978.
Portney, Paul and J. Mullahy. "Urban Air Quality and Chronic Respiratory Disease. Regional Science Journal of Urban Economics. vol. 20, pp. 407-418. 1990.