Varieties of glocalisation: the international economic strategies of Amsterdam, Manchester, and Zurich compared
Nico van der Heiden
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy,
Our aim in this paper is to explain the international strategies of cities by focusing on market conditions. Drawing on a critique of the glocalisation thesis we show that the design of these strategies can plausibly be explained by the specific characteristics of urban capitalism found in the different cities. Whereas the international strategy of Manchester must be seen as a response to problems of postindustrial restrictions, the importance of the logistic sector in Dutch capitalism strongly shapes Amsterdam’s strategy. In Zurich, though, it is argued that the city was already very well prepared for the transformation towards a post-Fordist regime, and so did not need any strategy at all. We conclude that varieties of glocalisation trajectories are a major factor driving and shaping the characteristics of international urban strategies.