A finite element study on the effects of toughness and permanent out-of-plane deformation on post-impact compressive strength
This study applies mechanisms observed from previous work (the undamaged cone, toughness and extent of permanent out-of-plane deformation) to parametrically study their effects on residual compression after impact (CAI) strength using finite element models. Based on previous experimental work, tougher material systems exhibited up to 30% greater CAI strength for a given damage area. Based on this, it is necessary to understand what other parameters, beyond damage area, contribute to a loss in CAI strength. Finite element models were conducted in ABAQUS explicit. Delamination growth was modelled using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). This study found that systems containing an undamaged cone led to an increased load prior to buckling resulting in lower 0° peak compressive stresses and lower strain energy release rates forming at the outer edges of the delamination zone. In certain configurations, delamination growth into the undamaged cone occurred and was shown to negatively affect the post-buckled response. Overall, the effects of both toughness and permanent out-of-plane deformation was shown to affect CAI failure load by up to ~50% for a given damage diameter. It is also apparent that toughness played a more significant influence than the extent of permanent out-of-plane deformation.
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