publication . Article . 2017

Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Coen, Yanaika; Martel, An;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jan 2017
  • Publisher: Public Library Science
  • Country: Belgium
Abstract
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0.01% peracetic acid and 0.001-1% copper sulphate were inactive against Bsal. None of the condition...
Subjects
free text keywords: Veterinary Sciences, SP-NOV, DENDROBATIDIS, AMPHIBIANS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, MECHANISMS, RESISTANCE, STRESS, CELLS, LIFE, Biology and Life Sciences, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine, Peracetic acid, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, Microbiology, Sporangium, Hydrogen peroxide, Sodium hypochlorite, Virkon, Chytridiomycota, biology.organism_classification, biology, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, medicine.drug_formulation_ingredient, medicine, Ecology, R, Science, Q, Research Article, Biochemistry, Enzymology, Enzymes, Catalases, Proteins, Medical Microbiology, Microbial Pathogens, Fungal Pathogens, Medicine and Health Sciences, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Pathogens, Mycology, Engineering and Technology, Equipment, Research and Analysis Methods, Separation Processes, Distillation, Health Care, Sanitization, Disinfection, Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Control, Public and Occupational Health, Preventive Medicine, Physical Sciences, Chemical Compounds, Organic Compounds, Alcohols, Organic Chemistry, Cell Biology, Cellular Structures and Organelles, Cell Membranes, Hygiene
Related Organizations
39 references, page 1 of 3

1 Martel A, Spitzen-van der Sluijs A, Blooi M, Bert W, Ducatelle R, Fisher MC, et al Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110: 15325–15329. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307356110 24003137 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

2 Martel A, Blooi M, Adriaensen C, Van Rooij P, Beukema W, Fisher MC, et al Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science. 2014;346: 630–1 doi: 10.1126/science.1258268 25359973 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

3 Spitzen-van der Sluijs A, Martel A, Asselberghs J, Bales EK, Beukema W, Bletz MC, et al Expanding distribution of lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22: 1286 doi: 10.3201/eid2207.160109 27070102 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

4 Cunningham AA, Beckmann K, Perkins M, Fitzpatrick L, Cromie R, Redbond J, O'Brien MF, Ghosh P, Shelton J, Fisher MC. Emerging disease in UK amphibians. Vet Rec. 2015;176: 468.

5 Sabino-Pinto J, Bletz M, Hendrix R, Bina Perl RG, Martel A, Pasmans F, et al First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany. Amphib-Reptil. 2015;36: 411–416. [OpenAIRE]

6 Fitzpatrick L, Pasmans F, Martel A, Cunningham A. Epidemiological tracing of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in European private amphibian collection. In Proc. In: Schumann A, Wibbelt G, Greenwood AD, Hofer H, editors. Proceedings of the 12th conference of the European Wildlife Disease Association (EWDA); 2016 Aug 26–31; Berlin, Germany. Berlin: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, 2016. p. 30.

7 Van Rooij P, Martel A, Haesebrouck F, Pasmans F. Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions. Vet Res. 2015;46: 137 doi: 10.1186/s13567-015-0266-0 26607488 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

8 Green DE, Converse KA, Schrader AK Epizootiology of sixty-four amphibian morbidity and mortality events in the USA, 1996–2001. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002; 969: 323–333.12381613 [PubMed]

9 Duffus ALJ, Waltzek TB, Stöhr AC, Allender MC, Gotesman M, Whittington RJ, et al Distribution and host range of ranaviruses In: Gray MJ, Chinchar VG, editors. Ranaviruses: Lethal pathogens of ectothermic vertebrates. Heidelberg: Springer; 2015 p. 9–58.

10 Johnson ML, Berger L, Philips L, Speare R. Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;57: 255–260. doi: 10.3354/dao057255 14960039 [PubMed]

11 Webb R, Mendez D, Berger L, Speare R. Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007; 74: 13–6. doi: 10.3354/dao074013 17425259 [PubMed]

12 Phillott AD, Spear R, Hines HB, Meyer E, Skerratt LF, McDonald KR, et al Minimizing exposure of amphibians to pathogens during field studies. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;92: 175‐185. doi: 10.3354/dao02162 21268979 [PubMed]

13 Langdon JS. Experimental transmission and pathogenicity of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and 11 other teleosts. J Fish Dis. 1989;12: 295–310. [OpenAIRE]

14 Bryan LK, Baldwin CA, Gray MJ, Miller DL. Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;84: 89–94. doi: 10.3354/dao02036 19476278 [PubMed]

15 RAVON Hygiene protocol [Internet]. Nijmegen: Reptielen Amfibieën Vissen Onderzoek Nederland; c2017 [cited 2017 April 20]. http://www.ravon.nl/Infotheek/Protocollen/Hygieneprotocol/tabid/1513/Default.aspx.

39 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0.01% peracetic acid and 0.001-1% copper sulphate were inactive against Bsal. None of the condition...
Subjects
free text keywords: Veterinary Sciences, SP-NOV, DENDROBATIDIS, AMPHIBIANS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, MECHANISMS, RESISTANCE, STRESS, CELLS, LIFE, Biology and Life Sciences, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine, Peracetic acid, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, Microbiology, Sporangium, Hydrogen peroxide, Sodium hypochlorite, Virkon, Chytridiomycota, biology.organism_classification, biology, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, medicine.drug_formulation_ingredient, medicine, Ecology, R, Science, Q, Research Article, Biochemistry, Enzymology, Enzymes, Catalases, Proteins, Medical Microbiology, Microbial Pathogens, Fungal Pathogens, Medicine and Health Sciences, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Pathogens, Mycology, Engineering and Technology, Equipment, Research and Analysis Methods, Separation Processes, Distillation, Health Care, Sanitization, Disinfection, Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Control, Public and Occupational Health, Preventive Medicine, Physical Sciences, Chemical Compounds, Organic Compounds, Alcohols, Organic Chemistry, Cell Biology, Cellular Structures and Organelles, Cell Membranes, Hygiene
Related Organizations
39 references, page 1 of 3

1 Martel A, Spitzen-van der Sluijs A, Blooi M, Bert W, Ducatelle R, Fisher MC, et al Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110: 15325–15329. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307356110 24003137 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

2 Martel A, Blooi M, Adriaensen C, Van Rooij P, Beukema W, Fisher MC, et al Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science. 2014;346: 630–1 doi: 10.1126/science.1258268 25359973 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

3 Spitzen-van der Sluijs A, Martel A, Asselberghs J, Bales EK, Beukema W, Bletz MC, et al Expanding distribution of lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22: 1286 doi: 10.3201/eid2207.160109 27070102 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

4 Cunningham AA, Beckmann K, Perkins M, Fitzpatrick L, Cromie R, Redbond J, O'Brien MF, Ghosh P, Shelton J, Fisher MC. Emerging disease in UK amphibians. Vet Rec. 2015;176: 468.

5 Sabino-Pinto J, Bletz M, Hendrix R, Bina Perl RG, Martel A, Pasmans F, et al First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany. Amphib-Reptil. 2015;36: 411–416. [OpenAIRE]

6 Fitzpatrick L, Pasmans F, Martel A, Cunningham A. Epidemiological tracing of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in European private amphibian collection. In Proc. In: Schumann A, Wibbelt G, Greenwood AD, Hofer H, editors. Proceedings of the 12th conference of the European Wildlife Disease Association (EWDA); 2016 Aug 26–31; Berlin, Germany. Berlin: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, 2016. p. 30.

7 Van Rooij P, Martel A, Haesebrouck F, Pasmans F. Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions. Vet Res. 2015;46: 137 doi: 10.1186/s13567-015-0266-0 26607488 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

8 Green DE, Converse KA, Schrader AK Epizootiology of sixty-four amphibian morbidity and mortality events in the USA, 1996–2001. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002; 969: 323–333.12381613 [PubMed]

9 Duffus ALJ, Waltzek TB, Stöhr AC, Allender MC, Gotesman M, Whittington RJ, et al Distribution and host range of ranaviruses In: Gray MJ, Chinchar VG, editors. Ranaviruses: Lethal pathogens of ectothermic vertebrates. Heidelberg: Springer; 2015 p. 9–58.

10 Johnson ML, Berger L, Philips L, Speare R. Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;57: 255–260. doi: 10.3354/dao057255 14960039 [PubMed]

11 Webb R, Mendez D, Berger L, Speare R. Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007; 74: 13–6. doi: 10.3354/dao074013 17425259 [PubMed]

12 Phillott AD, Spear R, Hines HB, Meyer E, Skerratt LF, McDonald KR, et al Minimizing exposure of amphibians to pathogens during field studies. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;92: 175‐185. doi: 10.3354/dao02162 21268979 [PubMed]

13 Langdon JS. Experimental transmission and pathogenicity of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and 11 other teleosts. J Fish Dis. 1989;12: 295–310. [OpenAIRE]

14 Bryan LK, Baldwin CA, Gray MJ, Miller DL. Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;84: 89–94. doi: 10.3354/dao02036 19476278 [PubMed]

15 RAVON Hygiene protocol [Internet]. Nijmegen: Reptielen Amfibieën Vissen Onderzoek Nederland; c2017 [cited 2017 April 20]. http://www.ravon.nl/Infotheek/Protocollen/Hygieneprotocol/tabid/1513/Default.aspx.

39 references, page 1 of 3
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publication . Article . 2017

Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Coen, Yanaika; Martel, An;