Late Emerging Reading Difficulties in English Language Learners
Garcia, Nicole Marie
- Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
Research has identified a group of students who do not begin to exhibit reading difficulties until fourth or fifth grade, suggesting late-emerging reading difficulties. Considering that these students do not show signs of reading difficulties in early grades, attempting to identify these students early becomes problematic. Additionally, little is known regarding the characteristics of late-emerging reading deficits within English language learner (ELL) populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the reading profiles of elementary-aged students identified as ELL who exhibit late-emerging reading difficulties. Data from three cohorts of Spanish-speaking ELL students (N=446) who were assessed on word level and comprehension reading skills in first through fifth grades were analyzed. The identification of late-emerging reading difficulties and the examination of reading profiles were examined using latent transition analysis in order to examine changes in profiles over time. Results suggested that ELL students exhibiting late-emerging reading difficulties displayed heterogeneous skill deficits (word level and comprehension deficits), displayed deficit patterns in word reading skills when measured with real words and adequate skill performance when measured with nonsense words, and had a higher probability of developing reading difficulties during the transition between second to third grade. Additional findings related to previous research in the area of late emerging reading difficulties with non-ELL students is discussed as well as implications for future research.