Black, Red, and Yellow: Cross-Racial Coalitions and Conflicts in the Early African American Scientific Imagination
On the question of biological human race, philosopher Kwame Anthony
Appiah sums up the current, dominant antiracist attitude simply: “I think there aren’t." Rigorous genealogies of the histories of race science, along with careful intellectual work tracing the develo... View more
14 Peter Buckingham, “David Walker: An Appeal to Whom?,” Negro History Bulletin 42, no. 1 (1979): 24-26.
15 Robert S. Levine, “Circulating the Nation: David Walker, the Missouri Compromise and the Rise of the Black Press,” in The Black Press, ed. Todd Vogel (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001), 17-36; Herbert Apetheker, “One Continual Cry”: David Walke“Ar'sppeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” (New York: Humanities Press, 1965); Peter P. Hinks, To Awaken My Aflicted Brethren: David Walker and the Problem of Antebellum Slave Resistance (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997). For more on the pamphlet's recirculation, see Lori Leavell, “'Not Intended Exclusively for the Slave States': Antebellum Recirculation of David Walker's A,”pCpaelallaloo 38, no. 3 (2015): 679-95.
16 Sterling StuckSelya,ve Culture: Nationalist Theory and the Foundations of Black America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 138; Sterling Stuckey, The Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1972).
17 StuckeyS,lave Culture; Crystal Anderson, “When WWereeColored? Blacks, Asians, and Racial Discourse,” in Blacks and Asians: Crossings, Conflict, and Commonality , ed. Hazel M. McFerson (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2006), 59-77; Jack D. Forbes, Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993).
18 David WalkeDr,avid Walker's “Appeal,” ed. Charles M. Wiltse (New York: Hill and Wang, 1965), i (all subsequent page references to this work will be given in parentheses in the text); Stuck, e25y7,.Slave Culture
22 Hinks,To Awaken My Aflicted Brethren , 130.
23 Celia E. Naylor-Ojronge, “'Born and Raised among These People, I Don't Want to Know Any Other': Slaves' Acculturation in Nineteenth-Century Indian Territory,” in Brooks, Confounding t,h18e3C. FoloorrLminoere on the Native American practice of slavery, see James F. Brooks, Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002); Alan Gallay, hTe Indian Slave Trade (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002). For ongoing complications regarding biology, race science, and kinship for Native Americans, see Yael Ben-Zvi, “Where Did Red Go? Lewis Henry Morgan's Evolutionary Inheritance and US Racial Imagination,” CR: The New Centennial Review 7, no. 2 (2007): 201-29; Kim TallBear, Native American DNA: Tribal Belonging and the False Promise of Genetic Science (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013).
24 MullenA, fro-Orientalism , xxxv. For associations between Asians and the color yellow, see Michael Keevak, Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011).
25 Gary Y. Okihiro, Margins and Mainstreams: Asians in American History and Culture (Seatle: University of Washington Press, 1994); Claire Kim, “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans,” Politics a2n7d, Society no. 1 (1999): 105-38.