publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015

Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India

John Colford;
Open Access
  • Published: 01 Oct 2015
  • Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
  • Country: Mexico
Abstract
Background Intermittent delivery of piped water can lead to waterborne illness through contamination in the pipelines or during household storage, use of unsafe water sources during intermittencies, and limited water availability for hygiene. We assessed the association between continuous versus intermittent water supply and waterborne diseases, child mortality, and weight for age in Hubli-Dharwad, India. Methods and Findings We conducted a matched cohort study with multivariate matching to identify intermittent and continuous supply areas with comparable characteristics in Hubli-Dharwad. We followed 3,922 households in 16 neighborhoods with children <5 y old, w...
Subjects
free text keywords: Humans, Prevalence, Child Mortality, Water Microbiology, Water Supply, Child, Preschool, Infant, Newborn, Urban Health, India, Female, Male, Drinking Water, Water Quality, Waterborne Diseases, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Biodefense, Prevention, Foodborne Illness, Vaccine Related, Clinical Research, Digestive Diseases, General & Internal Medicine, Medical and Health Sciences, Medicine, R, Research Article, General Medicine, Weight for Age, Sanitation, Environmental health, business.industry, business, Hygiene, media_common.quotation_subject, media_common, Water resources, medicine.disease
Related Organizations
49 references, page 1 of 4

1 Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J. Fecal Contamination of Drinking-Water in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Hunter PR, editor. PLoS Med. 2014;11: e1001644 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001644 24800926 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2 Van den Berg C, Danilenko A. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Blue Book: The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook. Washington DC: World Bank; 2011.

3 Huang LY, Wang YC, Liu CM, Wu TN, Chou CH, Sung FC, et al Water outage increases the risk of gastroenteritis and eyes and skin diseases. BMC Public Health. 2011;11: 726 10.1186/1471-2458-11-726 21943080 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

4 Hunter PR, Chalmers RM, Hughes S, Syed Q. Self-reported diarrhea in a control group: a strong association with reporting of low-pressure events in tap water. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40: e32–e34. 15712068 [PubMed]

5 Nygard K, Wahl E, Krogh T, Tveit OA, Bøhleng E, Tverdal A, et al Breaks and maintenance work in the water distribution systems and gastrointestinal illness: a cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36: 873–880. 17389718 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

6Özkan S, Tüzün H, Görer N, Ceyhan M, Aycan S, Albayrak S, et al Water usage habits and the incidence of diarrhea in rural Ankara, Turkey. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101: 1131–1135. 17681361 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

7 Abu Mourad TA. Palestinian refugee conditions associated with intestinal parasites and diarrhoea: Nuseirat refugee camp as a case study. Public Health. 2004;118: 131–142. 15037044 [PubMed]

8 Cifuentes E, Suárez L, Solano M, Santos R. Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110: A619–A624. 12361943 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

9 Abu Amr SS, Yassin MM. Microbial contamination of the drinking water distribution system and its impact on human health in Khan Yunis Governorate, Gaza Strip: seven years of monitoring (2000–2006). Public Health. 2008;122: 1275–1283. 10.1016/j.puhe.2008.02.009 18539305 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

10 Yassin MM, Amr SSA, Al-Najar HM. Assessment of microbiological water quality and its relation to human health in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip. Public Health. 2006;120: 1177–1187. 17034823 [PubMed]

11 Ercumen A, Gruber JS, Colford JM. Water distribution system deficiencies and gastrointestinal illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122: 651–660. 10.1289/ehp.1306912 24659576 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

12 Arnold BF, Khush RS, Ramaswamy P, London AG, Rajkumar P, Ramaprabha P, et al Causal inference methods to study nonrandomized, preexisting development interventions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010;107: 22605–22610. 10.1073/pnas.1008944107 21149699 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

13 Ho DE, Imai K, King G, Stuart EA. Matching as nonparametric preprocessing for reducing model dependence in parametric causal inference. Polit Anal. 2007;15: 199–236.

14 Registrar General of India. Census of India 2011: Karnataka: Dharwad District. Technical Report. New Delhi: Registrar General of India; 2011.

15 Kumpel E, Nelson KL. Comparing Microbial Water Quality in an Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supply. Water Res. 2013;47: 5176–5188. 10.1016/j.watres.2013.05.058 23866140 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

49 references, page 1 of 4
Related research
Abstract
Background Intermittent delivery of piped water can lead to waterborne illness through contamination in the pipelines or during household storage, use of unsafe water sources during intermittencies, and limited water availability for hygiene. We assessed the association between continuous versus intermittent water supply and waterborne diseases, child mortality, and weight for age in Hubli-Dharwad, India. Methods and Findings We conducted a matched cohort study with multivariate matching to identify intermittent and continuous supply areas with comparable characteristics in Hubli-Dharwad. We followed 3,922 households in 16 neighborhoods with children <5 y old, w...
Subjects
free text keywords: Humans, Prevalence, Child Mortality, Water Microbiology, Water Supply, Child, Preschool, Infant, Newborn, Urban Health, India, Female, Male, Drinking Water, Water Quality, Waterborne Diseases, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Biodefense, Prevention, Foodborne Illness, Vaccine Related, Clinical Research, Digestive Diseases, General & Internal Medicine, Medical and Health Sciences, Medicine, R, Research Article, General Medicine, Weight for Age, Sanitation, Environmental health, business.industry, business, Hygiene, media_common.quotation_subject, media_common, Water resources, medicine.disease
Related Organizations
49 references, page 1 of 4

1 Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J. Fecal Contamination of Drinking-Water in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Hunter PR, editor. PLoS Med. 2014;11: e1001644 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001644 24800926 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2 Van den Berg C, Danilenko A. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Blue Book: The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook. Washington DC: World Bank; 2011.

3 Huang LY, Wang YC, Liu CM, Wu TN, Chou CH, Sung FC, et al Water outage increases the risk of gastroenteritis and eyes and skin diseases. BMC Public Health. 2011;11: 726 10.1186/1471-2458-11-726 21943080 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

4 Hunter PR, Chalmers RM, Hughes S, Syed Q. Self-reported diarrhea in a control group: a strong association with reporting of low-pressure events in tap water. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40: e32–e34. 15712068 [PubMed]

5 Nygard K, Wahl E, Krogh T, Tveit OA, Bøhleng E, Tverdal A, et al Breaks and maintenance work in the water distribution systems and gastrointestinal illness: a cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36: 873–880. 17389718 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

6Özkan S, Tüzün H, Görer N, Ceyhan M, Aycan S, Albayrak S, et al Water usage habits and the incidence of diarrhea in rural Ankara, Turkey. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101: 1131–1135. 17681361 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

7 Abu Mourad TA. Palestinian refugee conditions associated with intestinal parasites and diarrhoea: Nuseirat refugee camp as a case study. Public Health. 2004;118: 131–142. 15037044 [PubMed]

8 Cifuentes E, Suárez L, Solano M, Santos R. Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110: A619–A624. 12361943 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

9 Abu Amr SS, Yassin MM. Microbial contamination of the drinking water distribution system and its impact on human health in Khan Yunis Governorate, Gaza Strip: seven years of monitoring (2000–2006). Public Health. 2008;122: 1275–1283. 10.1016/j.puhe.2008.02.009 18539305 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

10 Yassin MM, Amr SSA, Al-Najar HM. Assessment of microbiological water quality and its relation to human health in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip. Public Health. 2006;120: 1177–1187. 17034823 [PubMed]

11 Ercumen A, Gruber JS, Colford JM. Water distribution system deficiencies and gastrointestinal illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122: 651–660. 10.1289/ehp.1306912 24659576 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

12 Arnold BF, Khush RS, Ramaswamy P, London AG, Rajkumar P, Ramaprabha P, et al Causal inference methods to study nonrandomized, preexisting development interventions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010;107: 22605–22610. 10.1073/pnas.1008944107 21149699 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

13 Ho DE, Imai K, King G, Stuart EA. Matching as nonparametric preprocessing for reducing model dependence in parametric causal inference. Polit Anal. 2007;15: 199–236.

14 Registrar General of India. Census of India 2011: Karnataka: Dharwad District. Technical Report. New Delhi: Registrar General of India; 2011.

15 Kumpel E, Nelson KL. Comparing Microbial Water Quality in an Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supply. Water Res. 2013;47: 5176–5188. 10.1016/j.watres.2013.05.058 23866140 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

49 references, page 1 of 4
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