publication . Article . 2013

Heterogeneity of characteristics, structure, and dynamics of male and hijra sex workers in selected cities of Pakistan

Thompson, Laura H; Salim, Momina; Baloch, Chaker Riaz; Musa, Nighat; Reza, Tahira; Dar, Nosheen; Arian, Shahzad; Blanchard, James F; Emmanuel, Faran;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Apr 2013 Journal: Sexually Transmitted Infections, volume 89, issue Suppl 2, pages ii43-ii47 (issn: 1368-4973, eissn: 1472-3263, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Abstract
Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6 MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3 HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras,...
Subjects
free text keywords: EPIDEMIOLOGY (GENERAL), HIV, Supplement, COMMERCIAL SEX, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, 1506
22 references, page 1 of 2

1 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project Pakistan high-risk groups mapping report. Islamabad, 2011 http://www.nacp.gov.pk/surveillance_and_research/ (accessed 10 Mar 2013).

2 Collumbien M Qureshi A Mayhew SH Understanding the context of male and transgender sex work using peer ethnography. Sex Transm Infect 2009:85(Suppl 2):ii3–7 19307348 [PubMed]

3 Shaw SY Emmanuel F Adrien A The descriptive epidemiology of male sex workers in Pakistan: a biological and behavioural examination. Sex Transm Infect 2011;87:73–80 21084440 [PubMed]

4 Rajabali A Khan S Warraich HJ HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:511–15 18652997 [PubMed]

5 Government of Pakistan Pakistan Penal Code, October 6th, 1860. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/1860/actXLVof1860.html (accessed 8 Jan 2012).

6 Government of Pakistan Hudood Laws. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/hudood.html (accessed 8 Jan 2012).

7 Mayhew S Collumbien M Qureshi A Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan's fight against HIV/AIDS. Sex Transm Infect 2009:85(Suppl 2):ii31–6 19307349 [PubMed]

8 Hawkes S Collumbien M Platt L HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men, transgender and women selling sex in two cities in Pakistan: a cross-sectional prevalence survey. Sex Transm Infect 2009;85(Suppl 2):ii8–16 19307351 [PubMed]

9 Khan AA Rehan N Qayyum K Correlates and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among Hijras (male transgenders) in Pakistan. Int J STD AIDS 2008;19:817–20 19050211 [PubMed]

10 Van Griensven F de Lind van Wijngaarden JW A review of the epidemiology of HIV infection and prevention responses among MSM in Asia. AIDS 2010;24(Suppl 3):S30–40 20926926 [PubMed]

11 Chan PA Khan OA Risk factors for HIV infection in males who have sex with males (MSM) in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 2007;7:153 17625020 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

12 Pappas G Khan O Wright JT Males who have sex with males (MSM) and HIV/AIDS in India: the hidden epidemic. AIDS Public Policy J 2001:16;4–17

13 Emmanuel F Blanchard J Zaheer HA The HIV/AIDS surveillance project mapping approach: An innovative approach for mapping and size estimation for groups at a higher risk of HIV in Pakistan. AIDS 2010:24(Suppl 2):S77–84 20610953 [PubMed]

14 Bokhari A Nizamani NM Jakcson DJ HIV risk in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan: an emerging epidemic in injecting and commercial sex networks. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18:486–92 17623508 [PubMed]

15 Mumtaz G Hilmi N McFarland W Are HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: a systematic review and data synthesis. PLoS Med 2010;8:e1000444 21829329 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

22 references, page 1 of 2
Similar Outcomes
16 research outcomes, page 1 of 2
16 research outcomes, page 1 of 2
Abstract
Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6 MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3 HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras,...
Subjects
free text keywords: EPIDEMIOLOGY (GENERAL), HIV, Supplement, COMMERCIAL SEX, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, 1506
22 references, page 1 of 2

1 Pakistan National AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project Pakistan high-risk groups mapping report. Islamabad, 2011 http://www.nacp.gov.pk/surveillance_and_research/ (accessed 10 Mar 2013).

2 Collumbien M Qureshi A Mayhew SH Understanding the context of male and transgender sex work using peer ethnography. Sex Transm Infect 2009:85(Suppl 2):ii3–7 19307348 [PubMed]

3 Shaw SY Emmanuel F Adrien A The descriptive epidemiology of male sex workers in Pakistan: a biological and behavioural examination. Sex Transm Infect 2011;87:73–80 21084440 [PubMed]

4 Rajabali A Khan S Warraich HJ HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:511–15 18652997 [PubMed]

5 Government of Pakistan Pakistan Penal Code, October 6th, 1860. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/1860/actXLVof1860.html (accessed 8 Jan 2012).

6 Government of Pakistan Hudood Laws. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/hudood.html (accessed 8 Jan 2012).

7 Mayhew S Collumbien M Qureshi A Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan's fight against HIV/AIDS. Sex Transm Infect 2009:85(Suppl 2):ii31–6 19307349 [PubMed]

8 Hawkes S Collumbien M Platt L HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men, transgender and women selling sex in two cities in Pakistan: a cross-sectional prevalence survey. Sex Transm Infect 2009;85(Suppl 2):ii8–16 19307351 [PubMed]

9 Khan AA Rehan N Qayyum K Correlates and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among Hijras (male transgenders) in Pakistan. Int J STD AIDS 2008;19:817–20 19050211 [PubMed]

10 Van Griensven F de Lind van Wijngaarden JW A review of the epidemiology of HIV infection and prevention responses among MSM in Asia. AIDS 2010;24(Suppl 3):S30–40 20926926 [PubMed]

11 Chan PA Khan OA Risk factors for HIV infection in males who have sex with males (MSM) in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 2007;7:153 17625020 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

12 Pappas G Khan O Wright JT Males who have sex with males (MSM) and HIV/AIDS in India: the hidden epidemic. AIDS Public Policy J 2001:16;4–17

13 Emmanuel F Blanchard J Zaheer HA The HIV/AIDS surveillance project mapping approach: An innovative approach for mapping and size estimation for groups at a higher risk of HIV in Pakistan. AIDS 2010:24(Suppl 2):S77–84 20610953 [PubMed]

14 Bokhari A Nizamani NM Jakcson DJ HIV risk in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan: an emerging epidemic in injecting and commercial sex networks. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18:486–92 17623508 [PubMed]

15 Mumtaz G Hilmi N McFarland W Are HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: a systematic review and data synthesis. PLoS Med 2010;8:e1000444 21829329 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

22 references, page 1 of 2
Similar Outcomes
16 research outcomes, page 1 of 2
16 research outcomes, page 1 of 2
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