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Cik skaitļu ir latviešu valodā?

Authors: Menantaud, Henri;

Cik skaitļu ir latviešu valodā?

Abstract

Latviešu valodā lietvārda skaitlis var būt brīvs (man ir grāmata vs man ir grāmatas) vai pārvaldīts (man ir divas grāmatas vs *man ir divas grāmata). Līdz ar to latviešu skaitļa vārdi ir iedalāmi tādos, kas pārvalda vienskaitli (piem. viens), un tādos, kas pārvalda daudzskaitli (piem. divi, desmit, pāris). Daži izņēmumi ir tikai šķietami. Piemēram, var pieņemt, ka vārdu sakopojumā vieni vārti, vārti ir īpatnējas dzimtes (pseidovīriešdaudzskaitlinieku dzimtes) vienskaitļa forma, nevis vīriešu dzimtes daudzskaitļa forma (sal. ts. " род парный " krievu valodā, sk. Зализняк 1967). Ne grūtāk būs pieņemt, ka latviešu valodā pastāv divi atšķirīgi skaitļa vārdi ar formu daudz, viens no kuriem pārvalda vienskaitli (daudz ūdens), bet otrs pārvalda daudzskaitli (daudz grāmatu). Citādi ir ar skaitļa vārdiem (daļskaitļu nosaukumiem), kā pusotra, pustreša u. tml. Te saskaņā ar vairākiem aprakstiem vienskaitļa un daudzskaitļa formas var atrasties vienā un tai pašā paradigmā, piem. N pusotra gada, Ģ pusotra gada, D pusotriem gadiem, A pusotra gada, L pusotros gados (sk. Bergmane e. a. 1959 : 497 ; Pauliņš, Rozenbergs, Vilāns 1978 : 76). Tas rada jautājumu, kuru skaitli pārvalda tādi skaitļu vārdi kā pusotra? Vai var pieņemt, ka viens un tas pats vārds pārvalda atšķirīgas skaitļa kategorijas vērtības atkarībā no locījuma ? Mūsuprāt apmierinošāka atbilde ir tāda : šie skaitļa vārdi nepārvalda ne vienskaitli, nedz daudzskaitli, bet trešo skaitli, ko mēs sauksim par " vidējskaitli ". Atkarībā no locījuma, vidējskaitļa formas ir homonīmas vai nu ar vienskaitļa formām, vai arī ar daudzskaitļa formām. Atšķirībā no abiem otrajiem skaitļiem vidējskaitlis latviešu valodā ir vienmēr pārvaldīts, nav nekad brīvs.

Country
France
Related Organizations
Keywords

[SHS.LANGUE]Humanities and Social Sciences/Linguistics, [SHS.LANGUE] Humanities and Social Sciences/Linguistics

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  • citations
    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    0
    popularity
    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
    Average
    impulse
    This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average
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