publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Other literature type . Book . 2017

Bayesian (Belief) Networks

Fernando Santos-Martin; Eszter Kelemen; Marina Garcia-Llorente; Sander Jacobs; Elisa Oteros-Rozas; David Barton; Ignacio Palomo; Violeta Hevia; Berta Martín-López;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jan 2017
  • Publisher: Pensoft Publishers
Abstract
Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold: from sustainable management of natural resources, land use optimisation, environmental protection, nature conservation and restoration, landscape planning, nature-based sol...
Subjects
ACM Computing Classification System: ComputingMilieux_GENERAL
free text keywords: Mapping Ecosystem Services; Tiered approach; Ecosystem services, Natural resources, energy and environment, /dk/atira/pure/thematic/inbo_th_00036, Environment, /dk/atira/pure/thematic/inbo_th_00072, Society, /dk/atira/pure/core/keywords/557265479, Environmental planning, /dk/atira/pure/core/keywords/transdisziplin_re_studien, Transdisciplinary studies, ddc:333.7, Bayesian statistics, Machine learning, computer.software_genre, computer, Bayesian linear regression, Bayesian network, Theoretical computer science, Belief propagation, Artificial intelligence, business.industry, business, Causal Markov condition, Variable-order Bayesian network, Chain rule (probability), Mathematics, Graphical model, Bayes' theorem, Conditional probability, Bayesian programming, Bayesian inference, Bayesian probability, Dempster–Shafer theory, Causality, Raw data, Uncertain inference, Joint probability distribution, Probabilistic logic, Inference, Computer science, ESMERALDA, [SDE]Environmental Sciences, Mapping Ecosystem Services, Tiered approach, Ecosystem services, info:eu-repo/classification/ddc/333.7
Funded by
EC| ESMERALDA
Project
ESMERALDA
Enhancing ecoSysteM sERvices mApping for poLicy and Decision mAking
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 642007
  • Funding stream: H2020 | CSA
28 references, page 1 of 2

List of contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Chapter 2. Background ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. 1. A short history of the ecosystem services concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. 2. A natural base for ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2. 3. From nature to society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2. 4. Categorisation systems: The classification challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Chapter 3. Background mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3. 1. Basics of cartography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 2. Mapping techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. 3. Map semantics and syntactics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3. 4. Tools for mapping ecosystem services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3. 5. Mapping ecosystem types and conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3. 6. Landscape metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3. 7. Specific challenges of mapping ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter 4. Ecosystem services quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4. 1. Biophysical quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4. 2. Socio-cultural valuation approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 4. 3. Economic quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 4. 4. Computer modelling for ecosystem service assessment. . . . . . . .124 4. 5. Bayesian belief networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 4. 6. Applying expert knowledge for ecosystem service quanticfiation . .142

6. 4. Map interpretation/end-user issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288

7. 1. Mapping ecosystem services in national and supra-national policy making. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295

7. 2. Application of ecosystem services in spatial plannin g.. . . . . . . . . .303

7. 3. 1. Mapping urban ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

7. 3. 2. Ecosystem service maps in agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

7. 3. 3. Mapping forest ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322

7. 3. 4. Nature protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

7. 4. Applying ecosystem service mapping in marine areas. . . . . . . . . . .332

7. 5. Business and industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339

28 references, page 1 of 2
Abstract
Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold: from sustainable management of natural resources, land use optimisation, environmental protection, nature conservation and restoration, landscape planning, nature-based sol...
Subjects
ACM Computing Classification System: ComputingMilieux_GENERAL
free text keywords: Mapping Ecosystem Services; Tiered approach; Ecosystem services, Natural resources, energy and environment, /dk/atira/pure/thematic/inbo_th_00036, Environment, /dk/atira/pure/thematic/inbo_th_00072, Society, /dk/atira/pure/core/keywords/557265479, Environmental planning, /dk/atira/pure/core/keywords/transdisziplin_re_studien, Transdisciplinary studies, ddc:333.7, Bayesian statistics, Machine learning, computer.software_genre, computer, Bayesian linear regression, Bayesian network, Theoretical computer science, Belief propagation, Artificial intelligence, business.industry, business, Causal Markov condition, Variable-order Bayesian network, Chain rule (probability), Mathematics, Graphical model, Bayes' theorem, Conditional probability, Bayesian programming, Bayesian inference, Bayesian probability, Dempster–Shafer theory, Causality, Raw data, Uncertain inference, Joint probability distribution, Probabilistic logic, Inference, Computer science, ESMERALDA, [SDE]Environmental Sciences, Mapping Ecosystem Services, Tiered approach, Ecosystem services, info:eu-repo/classification/ddc/333.7
Funded by
EC| ESMERALDA
Project
ESMERALDA
Enhancing ecoSysteM sERvices mApping for poLicy and Decision mAking
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 642007
  • Funding stream: H2020 | CSA
28 references, page 1 of 2

List of contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Chapter 2. Background ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. 1. A short history of the ecosystem services concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. 2. A natural base for ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2. 3. From nature to society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2. 4. Categorisation systems: The classification challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Chapter 3. Background mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3. 1. Basics of cartography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 2. Mapping techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. 3. Map semantics and syntactics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3. 4. Tools for mapping ecosystem services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3. 5. Mapping ecosystem types and conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3. 6. Landscape metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3. 7. Specific challenges of mapping ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter 4. Ecosystem services quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4. 1. Biophysical quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4. 2. Socio-cultural valuation approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 4. 3. Economic quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 4. 4. Computer modelling for ecosystem service assessment. . . . . . . .124 4. 5. Bayesian belief networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 4. 6. Applying expert knowledge for ecosystem service quanticfiation . .142

6. 4. Map interpretation/end-user issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288

7. 1. Mapping ecosystem services in national and supra-national policy making. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295

7. 2. Application of ecosystem services in spatial plannin g.. . . . . . . . . .303

7. 3. 1. Mapping urban ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

7. 3. 2. Ecosystem service maps in agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317

7. 3. 3. Mapping forest ecosystem services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322

7. 3. 4. Nature protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

7. 4. Applying ecosystem service mapping in marine areas. . . . . . . . . . .332

7. 5. Business and industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339

28 references, page 1 of 2
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publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Other literature type . Book . 2017

Bayesian (Belief) Networks

Fernando Santos-Martin; Eszter Kelemen; Marina Garcia-Llorente; Sander Jacobs; Elisa Oteros-Rozas; David Barton; Ignacio Palomo; Violeta Hevia; Berta Martín-López;