A luz alem da visão : iluminação e sua relação com a saude e bem-estar de funcionarias de lojas de rua e de shopping centers em Porto Alegre

Doctoral thesis Portuguese OPEN
Betina Tschiedel Martau (2009)
  • Subject: Iluminação | Iluminação de interiores | Lojas - Arquitetura | Saude e trabalho | Melatonina | Lighting | Interior lighting | Retail stores | Health | Melatonin

Resumo: Este trabalho aborda os impactos nao visuais da exposicao humana a luz tentandorelacionar a qualidade da iluminacao a saude e bem-estar das funcionarias de lojas. A amostrado estudo transversal foi definida aleatoriamente, com a participacao de mulheres voluntarias.Foram selecionados tres grupos com dez participantes em cada: lojas de rua com contato comexterior e turno de trabalho diurno (9h as18h), lojas de shopping centers sem janelas para oexterior com turno de trabalho diurno (10h as 18h) e lojas de shopping centers sem janelas parao exterior com turno de trabalho tarde e noite (14h as 22h). A avaliacao da iluminacaoconsiderou as dimensoes das lojas e caracteristicas dos sistemas, incluindo ofuscamento,aparencia de cor da luz, flexibilidade e possibilidade de controles da iluminacao pelasfuncionarias. A avaliacao de aspectos relativos a saude e ao bem-estar utilizou comoinstrumentos as escalas psicometricas validadas pela area da Psicologia para afericao desintomas depressivos, de ansiedade e estresse. A avaliacao das condicoes de sono e analise doritmo atividade/repouso foi feita com um actimetro com luximetro acoplado (Actiwatch), e aanalise do ritmo de temperatura corporal, com um sensor de temperatura (Ibutton). Foiestabelecido o padrao de luz 24h a que esteve sujeita cada participante durante cinco diasconsecutivos e verificada a influencia deste padrao no sistema circadiano, atraves da medicaodos niveis de melatonina e cortisol salivar. O grau de satisfacao das funcionarias e suaspreferencias relativas a iluminacao do ambiente de trabalho foram levantados atraves daaplicacao de questionarios. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se correlacoes de Pearson,ANOVA e regressoes tipo stepwise, tendo como ferramenta o SPSS for Windows 13.0. No grupodas lojas de rua, os resultados indicam que, apesar de o nivel de satisfacao das funcionarias comos sistemas de iluminacao nao ser elevado, a presenca de luz natural contribui para sua saude ebem-estar. O cruzamento de aspectos de satisfacao e emocionais com os aspectos biologicosindicou que quanto maior a satisfacao geral com a iluminacao pela funcionaria da loja de rua,maior o nivel de melatonina as 24h e menores o escores de depressao. A possibilidade decontato com o exterior neste grupo leva a melhores condicoes fisiologicas, principalmente nascondicoes de sono, que os demais grupos. Nos grupos de shopping centers, a correlacao inversaencontrada entre a iluminancia geral media da loja e a satisfacao geral com as condicoes dailuminacao no ambiente de trabalho merece destaque, porque e nesta categoria que os escoresforam mais altos em todas as escalas aplicadas, indicando piores condicoes emocionais, e ondeha alteracoes nos aspectos biologicos avaliados. A pesquisa conclui ser necessaria a revisao dasestrategias para a iluminacao de lojas, sejam elas de rua ou de shopping centers, buscando-seresolver os possiveis conflitos entre uma iluminacao para vender produtos e a que considere aloja como um ambiente de trabalho. ABSTRACT: This work addresses the issue of non-visual impacts of human exposure to light, in anattempt to relate the quality of lighting to health, comfort, and well-being of female retail storeemployees. The sample for the cross-sectional study was randomly established with femalevolunteers. Three groups were selected: street retail stores with outside contact and dailyworking hours (9 a.m. to 6 p.m.), shopping mall retail stores with no window facing outside,with daily working hours (10 a.m. to 6 p.m.), and shopping mall retail stores with no windowfacing outside, with afternoon and evening working hours (2 p.m. to 10 p.m.). Each groupincluded ten employees. Assessment of lighting considered the dimensions of the stores andcharacteristics of systems, including the occurrence of glare, color appearance of light,flexibility, and possibility of lighting control by employees. The tools to assess well-being andhealth were psychometric scales internationally validated by the psychiatric field to measuredepression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Assessment of sleep conditions and analysis of theactivity/rest rhythm was carried by a wrist monitor with attached luximeter (Actiwatch) and theanalysis of the body temperature rhythm was made by a temperature sensor (Ibutton), to whicheach participant was submitted for five consecutive days. The lighting pattern's influence on thecircadian system was verified by measuring saliva melatonin and cortisol levels. The degree ofsatisfaction of employees and their preferences regarding work environment lighting weresurveyed by applying questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlations, ANOVA,and stepwise regression, with the tool SPSS for Windows 13.0. In street retail store group,results indicate that even though employees' satisfaction with lighting systems is not high, thepresence of natural light contributes for their health and well-being. Crossing the assessment ofsatisfaction and emotional aspects with biological ones indicated that the higher the streetretail store employees' general satisfaction with lighting, the higher their melatonin level at 12p.m. and the lower their depression scores. Possibility of outside visual contact in that groupleads to better physiological conditions, especially sleep conditions, than the other groups. Inshopping mall groups, the reverse correlation found between the store's average generalilluminance and general satisfaction with lighting conditions in the work environment is worthpointing out, since scores were highest in that category (worse emotional conditions) in allscales applied and there are changes both in cortisol rhythm (tendency to lower rhythm in themorning and afternoon mall group) and in melatonin (tendency to phase delay in the afternoonand evening mall group) as well as differentiation in activity rhythm and temperature in theafternoon and evening mall group. Shopping mall employees' miss visual contact with theoutside, being able to vary lighting during the workday, and consider lighting as excessive. Mostof them reported that they would like to reduce the amount of light in their workplace duringthe day. The study concludes that it is necessary to review the stores' lighting strategies,whether they are street retail stores or shopping mall retail stores, to seek new guidelines ableto solve the possible conflicts between light oriented to sell products and that which considersthe store as a workplace.
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