Subject: Lithuania ; Lithuanian Russian relations ; NATO ; European Union ; High politics ; Low politics ; Ethnic minorities ; Kaliningrad ; Energy sector
The article argues that the period of “high” politics in the ever-problematic relations between Lithuania and Russia is over. At the same time, it is agued that tensions remain at the level of “low” politics, when the agenda of bilateral relations is dominated by the se... View more
1 Larabee, S. F., NATO's Eastern Agenda in a New Strategic Era, RAND, 2003, p. 51
2 The partisan war in Lithuania lasted late into the 1950s and turned out to be the longest and bloodiest anti-Soviet resistance fight in the post-war Europe.
3 For more detailed data see: Lithuanian Research Center for Resistence and Genocide, http://www.genocid.lt; Estonian Museum of Occupations, http://www.okupatsioon.ee; also Sipaviciene, Audra, 'The Russian and the other East Slavic diaspora in the Baltic States', a report for the Euroconference “Diaspora Immigrants: a problem of dual loyalty?”, Berlin, September 1997.
4 Commission Opinion on Latvia's Application for Membership of the European Union, Brussels, 15 July, 1997, p.16, available online: http://www.am.gov.lv/data/file/e/komkart-zin-1997.pdf
5 Zvidrins, P., Recent changes of ethnic structure in the three Baltic states, in: Demography, Economy and Welfare. Lund University Press. 1995, pp. 336-350.
6 The Nobel Peace Prize winner M. Gorbachev sent Soviet security forces to suppress the national movements. 19 peaceful protesters were killed in Tbilisi, above 100 in Baku, 14 in Vilnius and 12 in Riga while hundreds were injured.
7 Latvian president V. Vyke Freiberga in an interview to the German newspaper “Der Zeit” responded that for her the collapse of the Soviet Union was “the happiest day of a long and gloomy century”.
9 A comment made by Sergei Yastrzhembsky after EU Commissioner Gunter Verheugen urged Moscow to admit the illegality of the Soviet Union's rule in the Baltics, see: Blagov, S., 'Russia, EU sign partnership treaty, despite historic differences', CNSNews, 11 May 2005
10 'The future of Europe sixty years after the Second World War', European Parliament, 12 May 2005