publication . Article . 2020

COVID-19 lockdown measures reveal human impact on water transparency in the Venice Lagoon

Federica Braga; Gian Marco Scarpa; Vittorio E. Brando; Giorgia Manfè; Luca Zaggia;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 May 2020
  • Publisher: Zenodo
Abstract
The lagoon of Venice has always been affected by the regional geomorphological evolution, anthropogenic stressors and global changes. Different morphological settings and variable biogeophysical conditions characterize this continuously evolving system that rapidly responds to the anthropic impacts. When the lockdown measures were enforced in Italy to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on March 10th 2020, the ordinary urban water traffic around Venice, one of the major pressures in the lagoon, came to a halt. This provided a unique opportunity to analyse the environmental effects of restrictions to mobility on water transparency. Pseudo true-colour composites Sentinel-2 satellite imagery proved useful for qualitative visual interpretation, showing the reduction of the vessel traffic and their wakes from the periods before and during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. A quantitative analysis of suspended matter patterns, based on satellite-derived turbidity, in the absence of traffic perturbations, allowed to focus on natural processes and the residual stress from human activities that continued throughout the lockdown. We conclude that the high water transparency can be considered as a transient condition determined by a combination of natural seasonal factors and the effects of COVID-19 restrictions.
Highlights • Lockdown measures in Venice restricted the mobility and stopped boat traffic, with a consequent decrease of wake waves. • An unprecedented water transparency in the city canals was determined by the absence of local boat traffic, however turbidity remained at usual levels in wind conditions. • Essential activities like fisheries and port traffic continued through the lockdown period thus revealing the extent of their impact on the lagoon ecosystem.
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free text keywords: Water transparency, Suspended sediments, Sentinel-2, Vessel traffic, Satellite imagery, Pollution, Waste Management and Disposal, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Article, Environmental resource management, business.industry, business, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Natural (archaeology), Environmental science, Environmental monitoring, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Visual interpretation, Satellite imagery, Water quality, Water transparency
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Funded by
EC| HYPERNETS
Project
HYPERNETS
A new hyperspectral radiometer integrated in automated networks of water and land bidirectional reflectance measurements for satellite validation
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 775983
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
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